Inguinal hernia classification
Inguinal hernia Microchapters
Inguinal hernia classification On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Inguinal hernia classification
Inguinal hernia may be classified according to integrity of the posterior wall and the deep inguinal ring into 4 groups. Inguinal hernia may be classified according to presence or absence of a peritoneal sac, size of the internal ring and integrity of the posterior wall of the canal into 5 groups.
- Inguinal hernia may be classified into several subtypes based on:
- Nyhus classification
- Gilbert classification
- Casten classification
- Mc Vay classification
- Inguinal hernia may be classified according to the integrity of the posterior wall, and the deep inguinal ring, into 4 groups:
- Normal inguinal ring, peritoneal sac is in the inguinal canal.
- Enlarged deep inguinal ring with the posterior wall intact, sac not in the scrotum
- Posterior wall (inguinal floor) defects:
- Inguinal hernia may be classified according to the presence or absence of a peritoneal sac, size of the internal ring and integrity of the posterior wall of the canal, Gilbert classification, into 5 groups:
- Type 1:
- Hernias with a peritoneal sac passing through an intact internal ring, unable to admit 1 finger breadth (ie,<1 cm.) and the posterior wall is intact.
- Type 2:
- Hernias with a peritoneal sac coming through a 1-finger breadth internal ring (ie, ≤2 cm.) and the posterior wall is intact.
- Type 3:
- Hernias have a peritoneal sac that is able to accommodate a 2-finger breadth or wider internal ring (ie, >2 cm).
- Type 4:
- Hernias have posterior wall with either complete breakdown or multiple defects. There is intact inguinal ring with no peritoneal sac.
- Type 5:
- Hernias are pubic tubercle recurrence or primary diverticular hernias.
- Type 1:
NOTE: Types 1, 2 and 3 are indirect hernias; types 4 and 5 are direct.
- Inguinal hernia may be classified according to Casten method into 3 stages:
- Stage 1: an indirect hernia with a normal internal ring
- Stage 2: an indirect hernia with an enlarged or distorted internal ring
- Stage 3: all direct or femoral hernias
- Inguinal hernia may be classified according to McVay method into 4 classes:
- Class 1: small indirect hernia
- Class 2: medium indirect hernia
- Class 3: large indirect hernia or direct hernia
- Class 4: femoral hernia
- Holzheimer RG (2005). "Inguinal Hernia: classification, diagnosis and treatment--classic, traumatic and Sportsman's hernia". Eur. J. Med. Res. 10 (3): 121–34. PMID 15851379.
- Zollinger RM (2003). "Classification systems for groin hernias". Surg. Clin. North Am. 83 (5): 1053–63. doi:10.1016/S0039-6109(03)00126-9. PMID 14533903.
- Mukai T, Baba M, Akiyama M, Uowaki N, Kusakabe S, Tajima F (1985). "Rapid change in mutation rate in a local population of Drosophila melanogaster". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82 (22): 7671–5. PMC 391395. PMID 2999775.