Hypospadias surgery

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hypospadias Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Hypospadias from Other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings



Prenatal Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Hypospadias surgery On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Hypospadias surgery

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA onHypospadias surgery

CDC on Hypospadias surgery

surgery in the news

Blogs on Hypospadias surgery

Directions to Hospitals Treating Hypospadias

Risk calculators and risk factors for Hypospadias surgery

Please help WikiDoc by adding more content here. It's easy! Click here to learn about editing.

Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D.


In developed countries, most hypospadias are surgically repaired in infancy. Surgical repair of first and second degree hypospadias is nearly always successful in one procedure, usually performed in the first year of life by a pediatric urologist or a plastic surgeon.

When the hypospadias is third degree, or there are associated birth defects such as chordee or cryptorchidism, the best management can be a more complicated decision. A karyotype and endocrine evaluation should be performed to detect intersex conditions or hormone deficiencies. If the penis is small, testosterone or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injections may be given to enlarge it prior to surgery.

Surgical repair of severe hypospadias may require multiple procedures and mucosal grafting. Preputial skin is often used for grafting and circumcision should be avoided prior to repair. In a minority of patients with severe hypospadias surgery produces unsatisfactory results, such as scarring, curvature, or formation of urethral fistulas, diverticula, or strictures. A fistula is an unwanted opening through the skin along the course of the urethra, and can result in urinary leakage or an abnormal stream. A diverticulum is an "outpocketing" of the lining of the urethra which interferes with urinary flow and may result in post-urination leakage. A stricture is a narrowing of the urethra severe enough to obstruct flow. Reduced complication rates even for third degree repair (e.g., fistula rates below 5%) have been reported in recent years from centers with the most experience, and surgical repair is now performed for the vast majority of infants with hypospadias.

Because of the difficulties and lower success rates of surgical repair of the most severe degrees of under virilization, some of these genetically male but severely undervirilized infants have been assigned and raised as girls, with feminizing surgical reconstruction. Opinion has shifted against this approach in the last decade because adult sexual function as a female has often been poor, and development of a male gender identity despite female sex assignment and rearing, has occurred in some XY children after reassignment for a more severe type of genital birth defect, cloacal exstrophy.


Template:WikiDoc Sources