Fundus (eye)

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The fundus of the eye is the interior surface of the eye, opposite the lens, and includes the retina, optic disc, macula, and posterior pole.[1] The fundus can be viewed with an ophthalmoscope.[1] The term may also be inclusive of Bruch's membrane and the choroid.

The eye's fundus is the only part of the human body where the microcirculation can be observed directly.[2] The diameter of the blood vessels around the optic disc is about 150 μm, and an ophthalmoscope allows observation of blood vessels with diameters as small as 10 μm.[2]


Medical signs that can be detected from observation of eye fundus include haemorrhages, exudates, cotton wool spots, blood vessel abnormalities (tortuosity, pulsation and new vessels) and pigmentation.[3]

Physical Examination



  1. 1.0 1.1 Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainsville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, 1990.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ronald Pitts Crick, Peng Tee Khaw, "A Textbook of Clinical Ophthalmology: A Practical Guide to Disorders of the Eyes and Their Management", 3rd edition, World Scientific, 2003, ISBN 981-238-128-7
  3. Imran Akram, Adrian Rubinstein "Common retinal signs. An overview", "Optometry Today", 28/01/05, [1]

See also


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