Dinitrotoluene

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Dinitrotoluene chemical structure
Dinitrotoluene

1-methyl-2,6-dinitro benzene
IUPAC name
Chemical formula C7H6N2O4
Molar mass 182.134 g/mol
Shock sensitivity Insensitive
Friction sensitivity Very low
Density 1.32g/cm3
Explosive velocity ?
RE factor ?
Melting point 67-70°C
Autoignition temperature Decomposes at 250-300°C
Appearance pale yellow to orange crystalline solid
CAS number 25321-14-6
PubChem 8461
SMILES CC1=C(C=C(C=C1)[N+]
(=O)[O-])[N+](=O)[O-]

Dinitrotoluene (DNT) or Dinitro is an explosive with the formula C6H3(CH3)(NO2)2. At room temperature it is a pale yellow to orange crystalline solid. It is a high explosive. It is one of the precursors for trinitrotoluene (TNT), which is synthesized through three separate nitrations of toluene. The first product is mononitrotoluene, DNT is the second, and TNT is the third and final product.

There are 6 possible isomers of dinitrotolulene. The most common one is 2,4-dinitrotoluene (CAS 121-14-2).

Most DNT is used in the production of Toluene diisocyanate which is used to produce flexible polyurethane foams. DNT is hydrogenated to produce toluene diamine, which in turn is phosgenated to form Toluene diisocyanate. Other uses include the explosives industry, dyes and plastics. It is not used by itself as an explosive, but is converted to TNT, or used as an additive with other compounds.

Dinitrotoluene is frequently used as a plasticizer, deterrent coating, and burn rate modifier in propellants (eg. smokeless gunpowders). As it is carcinogenic and toxic, modern formulations tend to avoid its use. In this application it is often used together with dibutyl phthalate.

Organic solvents: nitrobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene and carbon tetrachloride all have some effect on the immune system suppressing antibody production (1). 2,4-dinitrotoluene suppresses natural killer cell and macrophage activity (1).

External links

References

1 Kent, C., 1998, "Basics of Toxicology", John Wiley & Sons, Inc


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