Conduction aphasia

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Conduction aphasia
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Broca's area and Wernicke's area
MeSH D018886

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ahmad Muneeb, MBBS[2] Synonyms and Keywords: Dysphasia, Conduction; Associative Aphasia; Aphasia, Associative; Associative Aphasias; Dysphasias, Conduction; Aphasias, Associative; Conduction Aphasia; Conduction Dysphasias; Associative Dysphasias; Associative Dysphasia; Conduction Dysphasia; Dysphasias, Associative; Dysphasia, Associative; Aphasias, Conduction; Conduction Aphasias

Overview

Conduction aphasia, also called associative aphasia, is a relatively rare form of aphasia, thought to be caused by a disruption in the fiber pathways connecting Wernicke's and Broca's areas. The arcuate fasciculus is the most commonly involved pathway although evidence of other pathway involvement has also been found. Conduction aphasia is characterized by impaired repetition. Usually, writing, comprehension, and fluency remain intact. Neuroimaging can identify the underlying etiology. Speech therapy can improve recovery in patients suffering from conduction aphasia.

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

The most common cause of conduction aphasia is damage to arcuate fasciculus lying deep to left supra marginal gyrus. Other common causes of conduction aphasia include damage to other brain areas including leftsuperior temporal gyrus, left primary auditory cortices, insula and left inferior parietal lobe. Damage can be caused by multiple insults including stroke, tumors, infections. [6][7][4]

Differentiating conduction aphasia from other Diseases

  • Conduction aphasia must be differentiated from other diseases that cause speech/language problems such as:[4]

Epidemiology and Demographics

Age

Gender


Race

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

  • Prognosis depends upon the underlying etiology. If the conduction aphasia occurs as a result of stroke, then there is a probability of making a good recovery but persistent speech deficits may still remain. [4]

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

There is no established diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of conduction aphasia.

History and Symptoms

In some cases, symptoms of conduction aphasia may only last for few hours or few days.

Physical Examination

  • Physical examination is usually normal but may be remarkable for different findings depending upon the part of brain damaged. These may include:[10]

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

There are no ECG findings associated with conduction aphasia.

X-ray

There are no x-ray findings associated with conduction aphasia.

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

There are no echocardiography/ultrasound findings associated with conduction aphasia.

CT scan

Brain CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis of underlying etiology of conduction aphasia. As conduction aphasia is caused by damage in dominant hemisphere so ct scan can show stroke, tumor, infection or other pathologies of dominant hemisphere. [4]

MRI

Brain MRI may also be helpful in the diagnosis of the underlying etiology of conduction aphasia, as it can identify the pathologies of dominant hemisphere including stroke, infection, tumor etc. [4]

Other Imaging Findings

There are no other imaging findings associated with conduction aphasia.

Other Diagnostic Studies

Other diagnostic tests for conduction aphasia include Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. These tests assess attributes like comprehension, articulation, writing, problem-solving, and other features that can be affected by aphasia. [11] [12]

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

  • There is no surgical treatment directed for improvement of aphasia. However, surgery can be performed to eradicate certain causes leading to aphasia like tumors or infections. [4]

Prevention


References

  1. Hickok G (September 2009). "The functional neuroanatomy of language". Physics of Life Reviews. 6 (3): 121–43. doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2009.06.001. PMC 2747108. PMID 20161054.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Benson, D. Frank (1973). "Conduction Aphasia". Archives of Neurology. 28 (5): 339. doi:10.1001/archneur.1973.00490230075011. ISSN 0003-9942.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Dronkers, N.F.; Baldo, J.V. (2009). "Language: Aphasia": 343–348. doi:10.1016/B978-008045046-9.01876-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Acharya AB, Maani CV. "Conduction Aphasia - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf". statpearls publishing.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Benson DF, Sheremata WA, Bouchard R, Segarra JM, Price D, Geschwind N (May 1973). "Conduction aphasia. A clinicopathological study". Archives of Neurology. 28 (5): 339–46. doi:10.1001/archneur.1973.00490230075011. PMID 4696016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Jiménez de la Peña MM, Gómez Vicente L, García Cobos R, Martínez de Vega V (2018). "Neuroradiologic correlation with aphasias. Cortico-subcortical map of language". Radiologia. 60 (3): 250–261. doi:10.1016/j.rx.2017.12.008. PMID 29439808.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Damasio H, Damasio AR (June 1980). "The anatomical basis of conduction aphasia". Brain : a Journal of Neurology. 103 (2): 337–50. doi:10.1093/brain/103.2.337. PMID 7397481.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Aphasia: Incidence & Prevalence".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Ellis C, Urban S (December 2016). "Age and aphasia: a review of presence, type, recovery and clinical outcomes". Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation. 23 (6): 430–439. doi:10.1080/10749357.2016.1150412. PMID 26916396.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 Swanberg, Margaret M.; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Mendez, Mario F.; Cummings, Jeffrey L. (2007). "Speech and Language": 79–98. doi:10.1016/B978-141603618-0.10006-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Roth, Carole (2011). "Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination": 428–430. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_868.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "WAB-R Western Aphasia Battery-Revised".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

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