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RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARHGEF11 gene.[1][2][3]


Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form a complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. A similar protein in rat interacts with glutamate transporter EAAT4 and modulates its glutamate transport activity. Expression of the rat protein induces the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and its overexpression induces the formation of membrane ruffling and filopodia. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described.[3]


ARHGEF11 has been shown to interact with PLXNB3,[4][5] PLXNB1,[4][5][6][7] PLXNB2[4][5] and RHOA.[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Rümenapp U, Blomquist A, Schwörer G, Schablowski H, Psoma A, Jakobs KH (Oct 1999). "Rho-specific binding and guanine nucleotide exchange catalysis by KIAA0380, a dbl family member". FEBS Letters. 459 (3): 313–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01270-3. PMID 10526156.
  2. Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Nakajima D, Ohira M, Seki N, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N, Ohara O (Apr 1997). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 4 (2): 141–50. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.2.141. PMID 9205841.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Entrez Gene: ARHGEF11 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 11".
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Perrot V, Vazquez-Prado J, Gutkind JS (Nov 2002). "Plexin B regulates Rho through the guanine nucleotide exchange factors leukemia-associated Rho GEF (LARG) and PDZ-RhoGEF". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (45): 43115–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206005200. PMID 12183458.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Swiercz JM, Kuner R, Behrens J, Offermanns S (Jul 2002). "Plexin-B1 directly interacts with PDZ-RhoGEF/LARG to regulate RhoA and growth cone morphology". Neuron. 35 (1): 51–63. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00750-X. PMID 12123608.
  6. Oinuma I, Katoh H, Harada A, Negishi M (Jul 2003). "Direct interaction of Rnd1 with Plexin-B1 regulates PDZ-RhoGEF-mediated Rho activation by Plexin-B1 and induces cell contraction in COS-7 cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (28): 25671–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M303047200. PMID 12730235.
  7. Hirotani M, Ohoka Y, Yamamoto T, Nirasawa H, Furuyama T, Kogo M, Matsuya T, Inagaki S (Sep 2002). "Interaction of plexin-B1 with PDZ domain-containing Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 297 (1): 32–7. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02122-8. PMID 12220504.

Further reading

  • Fukuhara S, Murga C, Zohar M, Igishi T, Gutkind JS (Feb 1999). "A novel PDZ domain containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor links heterotrimeric G proteins to Rho". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (9): 5868–79. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.9.5868. PMID 10026210.
  • Togashi H, Nagata K, Takagishi M, Saitoh N, Inagaki M (Sep 2000). "Functions of a rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor in neurite retraction. Possible role of a proline-rich motif of KIAA0380 in localization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (38): 29570–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003726200. PMID 10900204.
  • Jackson M, Song W, Liu MY, Jin L, Dykes-Hoberg M, Lin CI, Bowers WJ, Federoff HJ, Sternweis PC, Rothstein JD (Mar 2001). "Modulation of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT4 by two interacting proteins". Nature. 410 (6824): 89–93. doi:10.1038/35065091. PMID 11242047.
  • Longenecker KL, Lewis ME, Chikumi H, Gutkind JS, Derewenda ZS (Jul 2001). "Structure of the RGS-like domain from PDZ-RhoGEF: linking heterotrimeric g protein-coupled signaling to Rho GTPases". Structure. 9 (7): 559–69. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00620-7. PMID 11470431.
  • Perrot V, Vazquez-Prado J, Gutkind JS (Nov 2002). "Plexin B regulates Rho through the guanine nucleotide exchange factors leukemia-associated Rho GEF (LARG) and PDZ-RhoGEF". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (45): 43115–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206005200. PMID 12183458.
  • Driessens MH, Olivo C, Nagata K, Inagaki M, Collard JG (Oct 2002). "B plexins activate Rho through PDZ-RhoGEF". FEBS Letters. 529 (2–3): 168–72. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03323-9. PMID 12372594.
  • Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (Nov 2002). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a functionally classified library composed of long cDNAs". Genome Research. 12 (11): 1773–84. doi:10.1101/gr.406902. PMC 187542. PMID 12421765.
  • Barac A, Basile J, Vázquez-Prado J, Gao Y, Zheng Y, Gutkind JS (Feb 2004). "Direct interaction of p21-activated kinase 4 with PDZ-RhoGEF, a G protein-linked Rho guanine exchange factor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (7): 6182–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M309579200. PMID 14625312.
  • Davidkova G, McCullumsmith RE, Meador-Woodruff JH (Nov 2003). "Expression of ARHGEF11 mRNA in schizophrenic thalamus". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1003: 375–7. doi:10.1196/annals.1300.030. PMID 14684465.
  • Banerjee J, Wedegaertner PB (Apr 2004). "Identification of a novel sequence in PDZ-RhoGEF that mediates interaction with the actin cytoskeleton". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 15 (4): 1760–75. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-07-0527. PMC 379273. PMID 14742719.
  • Wang Q, Liu M, Kozasa T, Rothstein JD, Sternweis PC, Neubig RR (Jul 2004). "Thrombin and lysophosphatidic acid receptors utilize distinct rhoGEFs in prostate cancer cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (28): 28831–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.C400105200. PMID 15143072.
  • Guo X, Li Y, Peng K, Hu Y, Li C, Xia B, Jin C (Nov 2005). "Solution structures and backbone dynamics of arsenate reductase from Bacillus subtilis: reversible conformational switch associated with arsenate reduction". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (47): 39601–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M508132200. PMID 16192272.
  • Longhurst DM, Watanabe M, Rothstein JD, Jackson M (Apr 2006). "Interaction of PDZRhoGEF with microtubule-associated protein 1 light chains: link between microtubules, actin cytoskeleton, and neuronal polarity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (17): 12030–40. doi:10.1074/jbc.M513756200. PMID 16478718.
  • Gu J, Wu X, Dong Q, Romeo MJ, Lin X, Gutkind JS, Berman DM (Jun 2006). "A nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in the PDZ-Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Ser1416Gly) modulates the risk of lung cancer in Mexican Americans". Cancer. 106 (12): 2716–24. doi:10.1002/cncr.21944. PMID 16691626.
  • Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (Nov 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635–48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983.
  • Ma L, Hanson RL, Que LN, Cali AM, Fu M, Mack JL, Infante AM, Kobes S, Bogardus C, Shuldiner AR, Baier LJ (May 2007). "Variants in ARHGEF11, a candidate gene for the linkage to type 2 diabetes on chromosome 1q, are nominally associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians". Diabetes. 56 (5): 1454–9. doi:10.2337/db06-0640. PMID 17287471.

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