Waldenström's macroglobulinemia historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Mohsin, M.B.B.S.[2], Roukoz A. Karam, M.D.[3]; Grammar Reviewer: Natalie Harpenau, B.S.[4]


Waldenström macroglobulinemia was first discovered by Jan G. Waldenström, a Swedish physician in 1944. Bing-Neel syndrome, a late and rare complication of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, was first discovered in 1936 by Jens Bing and Axel Valdemar Neel. First report on familial aggregation of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia was published in 1962. In 1944, Revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms (REAL) and WHO in 2001, placed Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the category of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. A diagnostic criteria for Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia was proposed by a consensus group at the Second International Workshop in Athens, Greece in 2002. A report published in 2013 showed that a patient of Bing-Neel syndrome who discontinued the treatment in 2009 remained asymptomatic.

Historical Perspective


  1. Waldenström, Jan (2009). "Incipient myelomatosis or «essential« hyperglobulinemia with fibrinogenopenia - a new syndrome?". Acta Medica Scandinavica. 117 (3–4): 216–247. doi:10.1111/j.0954-6820.1944.tb03955.x. ISSN 0001-6101.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Konoplev, Sergej; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E.; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Pei (2005). "Immunophenotypic Profile of Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma/Waldenström Macroglobulinemia". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 124 (3): 414–420. doi:10.1309/3G1XDX0DVHBNVKB4. ISSN 0002-9173.
  3. MASSARI R, FINE JM, METAIS R (1962). "Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia observed in two brothers". Nature. 196: 176–8. PMID 13933388.
  4. Altieri A, Bermejo JL, Hemminki K (2005). "Familial aggregation of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other neoplasms". Leukemia. 19 (12): 2342–3. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2403991. PMID 16224483.
  5. Blattner WA, Garber JE, Mann DL, McKeen EA, Henson R, McGuire DB; et al. (1980). "Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and autoimmune disease in a family". Ann Intern Med. 93 (6): 830–2. PMID 6778280.
  6. Fine JM, Lambin P, Massari M, Leroux P (1982). "Malignant evolution of asymptomatic monoclonal IgM after seven and fifteen years in two siblings of a patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia". Acta Med Scand. 211 (3): 237–9. PMID 6805257.
  7. Fine JM, Muller JY, Rochu D, Marneux M, Gorin NC, Fine A; et al. (1986). "Waldenström's macroglobulinemia in monozygotic twins". Acta Med Scand. 220 (4): 369–73. PMID 3099545.
  8. Gétaz EP, Staples WG (1977). "Familial Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia: a case report". S Afr Med J. 51 (24): 891–2. PMID 408931.
  9. Linet MS, Humphrey RL, Mehl ES, Brown LM, Pottern LM, Bias WB; et al. (1993). "A case-control and family study of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia". Leukemia. 7 (9): 1363–9. PMID 8371587.
  10. Ogmundsdóttir HM, Jóhannesson GM, Sveinsdóttir S, Einarsdóttir S, Hegeman A, Jensson O; et al. (1994). "Familial macroglobulinaemia: hyperactive B-cells but normal natural killer function". Scand J Immunol. 40 (2): 195–200. PMID 8047841.
  11. Seligmann M, Danon F, Mihaesco C, Fudenberg HH (1967). "Immunoglobulin abnormalities in families of patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia". Am J Med. 43 (1): 66–83. PMID 4143650.
  12. Taleb N, Tohme A, Abi Jirgiss D, Kattan J, Salloum E (1991). "Familial macroglobulinemia in a Lebanese family with two sisters presenting Waldenström's disease". Acta Oncol. 30 (6): 703–5. PMID 1958390.
  13. Treon SP, Hunter ZR, Aggarwal A, Ewen EP, Masota S, Lee C; et al. (2006). "Characterization of familial Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia". Ann Oncol. 17 (3): 488–94. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdj111. PMID 16357024.
  14. Youinou P, le Goff P, Saleun JP, Rivat L, Morin JF, Fauchier C; et al. (1978). "Familial occurrence of monoclonal gammapathies". Biomedicine. 28 (4): 226–32. PMID 104746.
  15. Renier G, Ifrah N, Chevailler A, Saint-Andre JP, Boasson M, Hurez D (1989). "Four brothers with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia". Cancer. 64 (7): 1554–9. PMID 2505923.
  16. Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Diebold J, Flandrin G, Muller-Hermelink HK, Vardiman J; et al. (1999). "World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: report of the Clinical Advisory Committee meeting-Airlie House, Virginia, November 1997". J Clin Oncol. 17 (12): 3835–49. doi:10.1200/JCO.1999.17.12.3835. PMID 10577857.
  17. Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Stein H, Banks PM, Chan JK, Cleary ML; et al. (1994). "A revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms: a proposal from the International Lymphoma Study Group". Blood. 84 (5): 1361–92. PMID 8068936.
  18. Dimopoulos MA, Kyle RA, Anagnostopoulos A, Treon SP (2005). "Diagnosis and management of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia". J Clin Oncol. 23 (7): 1564–77. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.03.144. PMID 15735132.
  19. Abdallah AO, Atrash S, Muzaffar J, Abdallah M, Kumar M, Van Rhee F; et al. (2013). "Successful treatment of Bing-Neel syndrome using intrathecal chemotherapy and systemic combination chemotherapy followed by BEAM auto-transplant: a case report and review of literature". Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 13 (4): 502–6. doi:10.1016/j.clml.2013.03.002. PMID 23747080.