The synaptonemal complex is a protein structure that forms between two homologous chromosomes during meiosis and that is thought to mediate chromosome pairing, synapsis, and recombination (crossing-over). The synaptonemal complex is a tripartite structure consisting of two parallel lateral regions and a central element.
Three specific components of the synaptonemal complex have been characterized: SC protein-1 (SYCP1), SC protein-2 (SYCP2), and SC protein-3 (SYCP3). In humans, the SYCP1 gene is on chromosome 1p13; the SYCP2 gene is on chromosome 20q13.33; and the gene for SYCP3 is on chromosome 12q.
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