3D model (JSmol)
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|Molar mass||67.09 g/mol|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Pyrrole, or pyrrol, is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, a five-membered ring with the formula C4H4NH. Substituted derivatives are also called pyrroles. For example, C4H4NCH3 is N-methylpyrrole. Porphobilinogen is a trisubstituted pyrrole, which is the biosynthetic precursor to many natural products.
Pyrrole has very low basicity compared to amines and other aromatic compounds like pyridine where the ring nitrogen is not bonded to a hydrogen atom. This decreased basicity is attributed to the delocalization of the lone pair of electrons of the nitrogen atom in the aromatic ring. Pyrrole is a very weak base with a pKaH of about -4. Protonation results in loss of aromaticity and is therefore unfavorable.
The starting materials in the Piloty-Robinson pyrrole synthesis are 2 equivalents of an aldehyde and hydrazine. The product is a pyrrole with specific substituents in the 3 and 4 positions. The aldehyde reacts with the diamine to an intermediate di-imine (R-C=N-N=C-R) which with added hydrochloric acid, gives ring-closure and loss of ammonia to the pyrrole.
In the second step a [3,3]sigmatropic reaction takes place between two intermediates.
Both NH and CH protons in pyrroles are moderately acidic and can be deprotonated with strong bases such as butyllithium and the metal hydrides. The resulting "pyrrolides" are nucleophilic. Trapping of the conjugate base with an electrophile (e.g. an alkyl or acyl halide) reveals which sites were deprotonated based on which ring positions actually react as nucleophiles. The product distribution of such a reaction can often be complex and depends on the base used (especially the counterion, such as lithium from butyllithium or sodium from sodium hydride), existing substitution of the pyrrole, and the electrophile.
Pyrrole undergoes electrophilic substitution predominantly at the 2 and 5 positions, though the substitution product at positions 3 and 4 is obtained in low yields. Two such reactions that are especially significant for producing functionalized pyrroles are the Mannich reaction and the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction, both of which are compatible with a variety of pyrrole substrates. Reaction of pyrroles with formaldehyde form porphyrins.
- Arsole, a moderately-aromatic arsenic analog.
- Furan, an analog with an oxygen instead of the nitrogen.
- Indole, a derivative with a fused benzene ring.
- Phosphole, a non-aromatic phosphorus analog.
- Pyrrolidine, the saturated hydrogenated derivative
- Simple aromatic rings
- Thiophene, an analog with a sulfur instead of the nitrogen atom.
- General Synthesis and Reactivity of Pyrrole
- Synthesis of pyrroles (overview of recent methods)
- Substitution reaction mechanisms of nitrogen-containing heteroaromatics
- Recent Review on Pyrrole Protection
- # Loudon, Marc G. (2002). "Chemistry of Naphalene and the Aromatic Heterocycles.". Organic Chemistry (Fourth Edition ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1135–1136. ISBN 0-19-511999-1.
- Nelson, D. L.; Cox, M. M. "Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry" 3rd Ed. Worth Publishing: New York, 2000. ISBN 1-57259-153-6.
- The aromatic pathways of porphins, chlorins and bacteriochlorins Jonas Juse lius and Dage Sundholm Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2000, 2, 2145-2151 doi:10.1039/b000260g Open access
- Piloty, O. Chem. Ber. 1910, 43, 489.
- Robinson, R.; Robinson, G. M. J. Chem. Soc. 1918, 43, 639-644.
- Microwave-Assisted Piloty-Robinson Synthesis of 3,4-Disubstituted Pyrroles Benjamin C. Milgram, Katrine Eskildsen, Steven M. Richter, W. Robert Scheidt, and Karl A. Scheidt J. Org. Chem.; 2007; 72(10) pp 3941 - 3944; (Note) doi:10.1021/jo070389+
- quitsmoking.about.com Link