Psilocybe mexicana

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Psilocybe mexicana
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Homobasidiomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Strophariaceae
Genus: Psilocybe
Species: P. mexicana
Binomial name
Psilocybe mexicana

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Psilocybe mexicana
mycological characteristics:
Gills icon.png 
gills on hymenium

or umbonate

hymenium is adnate

stipe is bare

ecology is saprophytic

edibility: psychoactive

Psilocybe mexicana is a psychedelic mushroom of the Agaricales family, having psilocybin and psilocin as main active compounds. It is a close relative to the European liberty cap.[citation needed]


The mushroom's hygrophanous or glabrescent cap ranges from 0.5 to 2 cm in diameter, rarely up to 3 cm. Its form is conic-campanulate and often has a central papilla. The disk is ocherous or brown in color. The whole fungus is approximatively 0.4-1.9 cm high. The spore size is about 8-12 x 5-8 x 5-6.7µm. They are obovoid and smooth. Spore deposits are sepia to dark purple-brown in color.

Psilocybe mexicana is known to form sclerotia, which are masses of mycelium harder than normal. Indeed, the fungus has an exceptional ability for forming sclerotia.

Distribution and habitat

Psilocybe mexicana is found about 4000 to 5000 feet above sea level from the South of Mexico to Guatemala, especially in limestone regions. The species grows either isolated or sparsely in moss along roadsides and trails, humid meadows or cornfields, as well as in the margin of deciduous forests. Fruiting takes place from May to October.

Consumption and cultivation

Like several other psychedelic mushrooms in the same genus, P. mexicana has been consumed by indigenous Central American peoples for its entheogenic effects. In the Nahuatl language, the fungus is known as Teonanácatl—agglutinative form of the words teó(ti) ("god") and nanácatl ("mushroom")—"god-mushroom."

In the western world p. mexicana is traded under pseudonyms truffles and Philosopher's Stone and often used as an alternative to psychedelic mushrooms. P. mexicana has the advantage of being legal in some countries, as they only outlaw dry mushrooms, and P. mexicana retains around 90% water when fresh.

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