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Brain: Pons
Diagram showing the positions of the three principal subarachnoid cisternæ. (Pons visible at center.)
Anteroinferior view of the medulla oblongata and pons.
Gray's subject #187 785
Part of Brain stem
Artery pontine arteries
NeuroNames hier-538
MeSH Pons

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

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The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a structure located on the brain stem. It is rostral to the medulla oblongata, caudal to the midbrain, and ventral to the cerebellum. In humans and other bipeds this means it is above the medulla, below the midbrain, and anterior to the cerebellum.


It is part of the central nervous system, and relays sensory information between the cerebellum and cerebrum. Aids in relaying messages in the brain, and contains the pneumotaxic centres that help regulate respiration. Also controls arousal. Some theories pose that it has a role in dreaming.[1]

Anatomy of the pons

The "knob-like" process is 2 centimeters long and located on the anterior (front) of the brainstem. It is formed of nerves that travel from one side (left or right) to the other. Most other fibres in the brainstem travel up and down.

The posterior (back) surface of the pons forms part of the wall of the fourth ventricle of the brain.

Most blood to the pons is supplied by pontine arteries. These are small arteries that branch off the basilar artery (of the Circle of Willis). Blood also comes from the anterior inferior, and superior cerebellar arteries.

There are two main domains in the pons for control of respiration:[2]

Cranial nerve nuclei

A number of cranial nerve nuclei are present in the pons:

Additional images


  1. The "Science of Dreaming" in Neurontic: Psychology for the Modern Mind..
  2. Essentials of Human Physiology by Thomas M. Nosek. Section 4/4ch6/s4ch6_10.

External links

Cost Effectiveness of Pons

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Pons | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Pons at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on PonsClinical Trials on Pons at Google

| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Pons | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on PonsNICE Guidance on PonsNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on PonsCDC on Pons

| group7 = Textbook Information on Pons | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Pons

| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Pons | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of PonsAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with PonsAND (side effects)}} Side effects of PonsAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to PonsAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on PonsAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on PonsAND (pregnancy)}} Pons in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Pons

| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Pons | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of PonsAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of PonsAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Pons

| group10 = Newstories on Pons | list10 = Pons in the newsBe alerted to news on PonsNews trends on Pons

| group11 = Commentary on Pons | list11 = Blogs on Pons

| group12 = Patient Resources on Pons | list12 = Patient resources on PonsDiscussion groups on PonsPatient Handouts on PonsDirections to Hospitals Treating PonsRisk calculators and risk factors for Pons

| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Pons | list13 = Symptoms of PonsCauses & Risk Factors for PonsDiagnostic studies for PonsTreatment of Pons

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Pons | list14 = CME Programs on Pons

| group15 = International Resources on Pons | list15 = Pons en EspanolPons en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Pons | list16 = Pons in the MarketplacePatents on Pons

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Pons | list17 = List of terms related to Pons


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