Pituitary adenoma natural history, complications, and prognosis
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Patients with pituitary adenoma may progress to develop lethargy, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Common complications of pituitary adenoma include bitemporal hemianopia , anosmia, acromegaly, gigantism and Cushing's syndrome. Prognosis is generally good, and approximately 18% of patients with macroadenoma require further treatment.
Natural history, complications, and prognosis
- Pituitary adenomas are generally benign.
- Patients with micoradenoma usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. At later stage they may show signs and symptoms of hormonal disturbances.
- Patients with macroadenoma usually present with visual field deficits and hormonal disturbances. Macroadenoma grows slowly and invades surrounding structure such as optic chiasm and olfactory tract.
- Females tend to develop symptoms at an earlier stage than males due to menstrual irregularities associated with the disease.
- Complications associated with pituitary adenoma generally arise from either the mass itself or from prolonged hormonal imbalance. Complications may include:
- Cushing's syndrome
- Pituitary apoplexy
- Pituitary insufficiency
- Central diabetes insipidus
- Bitemporal hemianopia
- Bilateral anopsia
- Invasion into the cavernous sinus with occasional compression of the:
- Hydrocephalus (seen in large adenoma)
- The prognosis of pituitary adenoma is generally good. However, recurrent symptoms require further intervention.
- Approximately 18% of patients with macroadenoma require further treatment.
- Pituitary adenoma https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pituitary_adenoma. 9 29 2015
- Gigantism http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/acromegaly-and-gigantism
- Dr Amir Rezaee and Dr Yuranga Weerakkody http://radiopaedia.org/articles/pituitary-adenoma 2015. URL accessed on 9 30 2015