Pituitary adenoma natural history, complications, and prognosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ahmad Al Maradni, M.D. [2]

Overview

Patients with pituitary adenoma may progress to develop lethargy, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Common complications of pituitary adenoma include bitemporal hemianopia , anosmia, acromegaly, gigantism and Cushing's syndrome. Prognosis is generally good, and approximately 18% of patients with macroadenoma require further treatment.

Natural history, complications, and prognosis

Natural history

  • Pituitary adenomas are generally benign.
  • Patients with micoradenoma usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. At later stage they may show signs and symptoms of hormonal disturbances.
  • Patients with macroadenoma usually present with visual field deficits and hormonal disturbances. Macroadenoma grows slowly and invades surrounding structure such as optic chiasm and olfactory tract.
  • Females tend to develop symptoms at an earlier stage than males due to menstrual irregularities associated with the disease.

Complications

Prognosis

  • The prognosis of pituitary adenoma is generally good. However, recurrent symptoms require further intervention.
  • Approximately 18% of patients with macroadenoma require further treatment.[4]

References


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