Phytophthora cinnamomi

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Phytophthora cinnamomi
File:Dieback sign gnangarra.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Protista
Phylum: Heterokontophyta
Class: Oomycetes
Order: Pythiales
Family: Pythiaceae
Genus: Phytophthora
Species: P. cinnamomi
Binomial name
Phytophthora cinnamomi
Rands

Phytophthora cinnamomi is a soil-borne water mould that produces an infection which causes a condition in plants called "root rot" or "dieback".

P. cinnamomi infects the roots by zoospores entering the root behind the root tip. Zoospores need water to swim through the soil, therefore infection is most likely in moist soils. Mycelia (or hyphae) grow throughout the root absorbing carbohydrates and nutrients, destroying the structure of the root tissues, "rotting" the root, and preventing the plant from absorbing water and nutrients. Early symptoms of infection include wilting, yellowing and retention of dried foliage and darkening of root color. Infection often leads to death of the plant, especially in dry summer conditions when plants may be water stressed.

File:Die back valley gnangarra.jpg
A landscape of heath in the Stirling Range, Western Australia, with a dieback-infested valley in the mid ground

In Australia, where it is known as dieback or cinnamon fungus, P. cinnamomi infects a number of native plants,[1] causing damage to forests and removing habitats for small mammals. Of particular concern is the infection and dieback of threatened species, including plants from the genera Banksia, Darwinia, Grevillea, Verticordia and Wollemia nobilis.

File:Littleleaf disease.jpg
Littleleaf disease in Pinus spp., the tree on the left shows no symptoms of infection while the tree on the right shows stunted leaf growth characteristic of P. cinnamomi infection

Damage to forests suspected to be caused by P. cinnamomi was first recorded in the United States about 200 years ago. Infection is the cause of sudden death of a number of native tree species, including American Chestnut, Littleleaf disease of Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata), Christmas tree disease in nursery grown Fraser Fir (Abies fraseri), while oaks are affected from South Carolina to Texas.

It has devastated forests of Ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) on the Hawaiian Islands. P. cinnamomi is also a problem in Colima, Mexico killing several native oak species and other susceptible vegetation in the surrounding woodlands.

In addition to damage to native woodlands, P. cinnamomi can also infect fruit trees, nut trees and other ornamental plants. Research has shown that P. cinnamomi can infect club mosses, ferns, cycads, conifers, cord rushes, grasses, lilies and a large number of species from many dicotyledonous families. This is a remarkable range for a plant pathogen and highlights the effectiveness of P. cinnamomi as an aggressive primary pathogen. This species has been named among the 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders.[2]

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