Oral cancer epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sargun Singh Walia M.B.B.S.[2], Simrat Sarai, M.D. [3]; Grammar Reviewer: Natalie Harpenau, B.S.[4]

Overview

The prevalence of oral cancer is estimated to be 91,200 cases annually. The incidence of oral cancer is approximately 10.5 adults per 100,000 individuals worldwide with a mortality rate of 1.2 per 100,000 individuals each year. Males are more commonly affected by squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity than females. The male to female ratio is approximately 6 to 1. Females are more commonly affected with adenocarcinoma of the hard palate. Oral cavity cancer usually affects individuals of the black population. Oral cavity cancer usually affects individuals of the lower-income patients.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence

  • Oral cancer is the 11th most common malignancy, worldwide.[1]
  • In the United States, it is estimated that approximately 91,200 persons are living with oral cancer.
  • It is estimated that about 14% cancers of head and neck are oral cancers (excluding lip cancer).

Incidence

  • The incidence of oral cancer is approximately 8.4 adults per 100,000 individuals worldwide with a mortality rate of 1.2 per 100,000 individuals each year.[2]
  • From 2010 to 2014, the estimated age-adjusted incidence of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in the United States was 11.2 cases per 100,000 persons per year.[3] 
  • It is estimated that there will be 49,670 new cases of oral cavity and pharynx cancer diagnosed in the United States in 2017 and 9,700 deaths due to this disease.[4]

Gender

  • Males are more commonly affected by squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity than females.[5]
  • The male to female ratio is approximately 6:1.[5]
  • Females are more commonly affected with adenocarcinoma of the hard palate.

Age

  • The incidence of oral cavity cancer increases with age; the median age at diagnosis is 65 years.

Race

  • Oral cavity cancer usually affects individuals of the black population.
  • Oral cavity cancer usually affects individuals of the lower-income patients.

References

  1. Ghantous Y, Yaffi V, Abu-Elnaaj I (July 2015). "[Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis]". Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993) (in Hebrew). 32 (3): 55–63, 71. PMID 26548152.
  2. Weatherspoon DJ, Chattopadhyay A, Boroumand S, Garcia I (August 2015). "Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence trends and disparities in the United States: 2000-2010". Cancer Epidemiol. 39 (4): 497–504. doi:10.1016/j.canep.2015.04.007. PMC 4532587. PMID 25976107.
  3. "Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) - National Library of Medicine - PubMed Health".
  4. "www.cancer.org" (PDF).
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Oral Cancer Incidence (New Cases) by Age, Race, and Gender | National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research".

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