Methanogenesis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens. Organisms capable of producing methane have been identified only from the kingdom Archaea, a group phylogenetically distinct from both eukaryotes and bacteria, although many live in close association with anaerobic bacteria. The production of methane is an important and widespread form of microbial metabolism. In most environments, it is the final step in the decomposition of biomass.

Recently, it has been demonstrated that leaf tissues of living plants emit methane [1]. Although the mechanism by which such methane production occurs is, as yet, unknown, the implications are far-reaching; this is an example of methanogenesis occurring in non-microbes, presumably under aerobic conditions. Most of what is known about methanogenesis comes from microbial studies.

Biochemistry of methanogenesis

Methanogenesis in microbes is a form of anaerobic respiration[2]. Methanogens do not use oxygen to breathe; in fact, oxygen inhibits the growth of methanogens. The terminal electron acceptor in methanogenesis is not oxygen, but carbon. The carbon can occur in a small number of organic compounds, all with low molecular weights. The two best described pathways involve the use of carbon dioxide and acetic acid as terminal electron acceptors:

CO2 + 4 H2 → CH4 + 2H2O

CH3COOH → CH4 + CO2

However, methanogenesis has been shown to use carbon from other small organic compounds, such as [[formic acid](formate), methanol, methylamines, dimethyl sulfide, and methanethiol.

The biochemistry of methanogenesis is relatively complex, involving the following coenzymes and cofactors: F430, coenzyme B, coenzyme M, methanofuran, and methanopterin.

Importance in carbon cycle

Methanogenesis is the final step in the decay of organic matter. During the decay process, electron acceptors (such as oxygen, ferric iron, sulfate, nitrate, and manganese) become depleted, while hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide accumulate. Light organics produced by fermentation also accumulate. During advanced stages of organic decay, all electron acceptors become depleted except carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a product of most catabolic processes, so it is not depleted like other potential electron acceptors.

Only methanogenesis and fermentation can occur in the absence of electron acceptors other than carbon. Fermentation only allows the breakdown of larger organic compounds, and produces small organic compounds. Methanogenesis effectively removes the semi-final products of decay: hydrogen, small organics, and carbon dioxide. Without methanogenesis, a great deal of carbon (in the form of fermentation products) would accumulate in anaerobic environments.

In ruminants

Methanogenesis occurs in the guts of humans and other animals, especially ruminants. In the rumen, anaerobic organisms including methanogens digest cellulose into forms usable by the animal, without them, livestock such as cattle would not be able to graze grass. The useful products of methanogenesis are absorbed by the gut, but the methane is released from the animal mainly by belching (eructation). The average cow emits around 600 litres of methane per day.[3][4]

Role in global warming

Methane in the Earth's atmosphere is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide, and methanogenesis in livestock and the decay of organic material is thus a considerable contributor to global warming. It may not be a net contributor in the sense that it works on organic material which used up atmospheric carbon dioxide when it was created, but its overall effect is to convert the carbon dioxide into methane which is a much more efficient greenhouse gas.

Methanogenesis can also be beneficially exploited, to treat organic waste, to produce useful compounds, and the methane can be collected and used as biogas, a fuel.

References

  1. Kepler F; et al. (2006). "Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions". Nature. 439: 187&ndash, 191.
  2. Thauer, R. K., "Biochemistry of Methanogenesis: a Tribute to Marjory Stephenson", Microbiology, 1998, volume 144, pages 2377-2406.
  3. [http://www.mycattle.com/health/dsp_health_article.cfm?storyid=10045 "Bovine belching called udderly serious gas problem - Global warming concerns spur effort to cut methane." By Gary Polakovic. Los Anglese Times, Sunday, July 13, 2003.
  4. Radio Australia: "Innovations – Methane In Agriculture." 15 August 2004. Retrieved 28 August 2007.

See also



de:Methanogenese it:Metanogenesi



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