Longitudinal arch of the foot
|Longitudinal arch of the foot|
|Skeleton of foot. Medial aspect.|
|Skeleton of foot. Lateral aspect.|
|Latin||arcus pedis longitudinalis|
|Gray's||subject #101 360|
The Longitudinal arch of the foot can be broken down into several smaller arches:
The main arches are the antero-posterior arches, which may, for descriptive purposes, be regarded as divisible into two types—a medial and a lateral.
Its summit is at the superior articular surface of the talus, and its two extremities or piers, on which it rests in standing, are the tuberosity on the plantar surface of the calcaneus posteriorly and the heads of the first, second, and third metatarsal bones anteriorly.
The chief characteristic of this arch is its elasticity, due to its height and to the number of small joints between its component parts.
Its weakest part, i. e., the part most liable to yield from overpressure, is the joint between the talus and navicular, but this portion is braced by the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, which is elastic and is thus able to quickly restore the arch to its pristine condition when the disturbing force is removed.
The ligament is strengthened medially by blending with the deltoid ligament of the ankle-joint, and is supported inferiorly by the tendon of the Tibialis posterior, which is spread out in a fanshaped insertion and prevents undue tension of the ligament or such an amount of stretching as would permanently elongate it.
The arch is further supported by the plantar aponeurosis, by the small muscles in the sole of the foot, by the tendons of the Tibialis anterior and posterior and Peronæus longus, and by the ligaments of all the articulations involved.
The lateral arch is composed of the calcaneus, the cuboid, and the fourth and fifth metatarsals.
The most marked features of this arch are its solidity and its slight elevation; two strong ligaments, the long plantar and the plantar calcaneocuboid, together with the Extensor tendons and the short muscles of the little toe, preserve its integrity.
Fundamental longitudinal arch
While these medial and lateral arches may be readily demonstrated as the component antero-posterior arches of the foot, yet the fundamental longitudinal arch is contributed to by both, and consists of the calcaneus, cuboid, third cuneiform, and third metatarsal: all the other bones of the foot may be removed without destroying this arch.
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