# List of thermal conductivities

In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat.

It is defined as the quantity of heat, Q, transmitted in time t through a thickness L, in a direction normal to a surface of area A, due to a temperature difference ΔT, under steady state conditions and when the heat transfer is dependent only on the temperature gradient.

thermal conductivity = heat flow rate × distance / (area × temperature difference)
${\displaystyle k={\frac {Q}{t}}\times {\frac {L}{A\times \Delta T}}}$

This list makes up the data for the smaller list provided in Thermal conductivity.

Material Thermal conductivity

(W·m−1·K−1)

Temperature

(K)

Electrical conductivity @ 293 K

(Ω−1·m−1)

Notes
Diamond, pure synthetic i2,000-i2,500 i293 (Lateral)i10−16 - (Ballistic)i108+ (>99.9%12C)
Diamond, impure ad1,000 a273 i~10−16 Type I (98.1% of Gem Diamonds)

(C+0.1%N)

Silver, pure d406 - f418 - agi429 agi300 g61.35 - i63.01 × 106 Highest electrical conductivity of any metal
Copper, pure d385 - f386 - e390 - gi401 egi293 g59.17 - i59.59 × 106 IACS pure =1.7×10-8Ω•m

=58.82×106Ω-1•m-1

Gold, pure d314 - fgi318 gi300 i45.17 - g45.45 × 106
Aluminium, pure d205 - f220 - egi237 egi293 g37.45 - i37.74 × 106
Brass dg109 - f119 - f151 - g159 g296 g12.82 - g21.74 × 106 (Cu+(37-15)%Zn)
Iron, pure f71.8 - d79.5 - a80.2 - gi80.4 agi300 g9.901 - i10.41 × 106
Cast iron f55 (Fe+(2-4)%C+(1-3)%Si)
Carbon steel f36 - d50.2 - f54 (Fe+(1.5-0.5)%C)
Bronze (f(25%Sn)26) g42 - g50 g296 g5.882 - g7.143 × 106 (Cu+11%Sn)
Lead, pure d34.7 - f35 - gi35.3 gi300 i4.808 - g4.854 × 106
Titanium, pure f15.6 - gi21.9 gi300 g1.852 - i2.381 × 106
Stainless steel a14 - fg16.3 a273 - g296 g1.389 - g1.429 × 106 (Fe+18%Cr+8%Ni)
Titanium Alloy g5.8 g296 g0.595 × 106 (Ti+6%Al+4%V)
Granite b1.73 - b3.98 (72%SiO2+14%Al2O3+4%K2O etc.)
Marble b2.07 - b2.94 Mostly CaCO3
Thermal grease, silver-based i2 - i3
Sandstone b1.83 - b2.90 ~95-71%SiO2
Ice d1.6 - e2.1 - a2.2 e293 - a273
Limestone b1.26 - b1.33 Mostly CaCO3
Concrete d0.8 - e1.28 e293 ~61-67%CaO
Glass d0.8−e0.93(g(96%SiO2)1.2-1.4) e(g)293 10−14 - (g)10−12 - 10−10 <1% Iron oxides
Fibre-reinforced plastics g0.23 - g0.7 - e1.06 g296 - e293 g10−15 - g100 10-40%GF or CF
Soil c0.17 - c1.13
Water de0.6 de293 (Pure)i10−6-(Sweet)i10−3±1-(Sea)i1 <3%(NaCl+MgCl2+CaCl2)
High-Density Polymers g0.33 - g0.52 g296 g10−16 - g102
Glycerol e0.29 e293
Wood, +>=12% water h0.09091 - a0.16 - h0.21 - e0.4 a298 - e293 hSpecies-Variable
Low-Density Polymers g0.04 - e0.16 - e0.25 - g0.33 g296 - e293 g10−17 - g100
Rubber (92%) a0.16 a303 ~10−13
Alcohols OR Oils e0.1 - e0.21 e293
Wood, oven-dry d0.04 - h0.07692 - d0.12 - h0.17 hCedar - hHickory
Snow, dry d0.11
Cork d0.04 - e0.07 e293
Fiberglass OR Foam OR Wool e0.03 - d0.04 - e0.045 e293
Expanded polystyrene ad0.033 - (g(PS Only)0.1 - 0.13) a98-a298-(g)296 (g)<10−14 - (g)100 (PS+Air+CO2+CnH2n+x)
Air d0.024 - e0.025 - a0.0262 d273-e293-a300 (N+21%O+0.93%Ar+0.04%CO2)

(1 atm)

Oxygen, pure d0.0238 - i0.02658 d293 - i300 (O2) (1 atm)
Nitrogen, pure d0.0234 - i0.02583 - a0.026 d293 - ai300 (N2) (1 atm)
Silica Aerogel a0.003-i0.004-k0.008-k0.017-i0.03 a98 - a298 Foamed Glass
Material Thermal conductivity

(W·m−1·K−1)

Temperature

(K)

Electrical conductivity @ 293 K

(Ω−1·m−1)

Notes

## References

a CRC handbook of chemistry and physics (subscription is required to access the data)
b Marble Institute
c Soil Sci Journals
d Georgia State University - Hyperphysics
e Hukseflux Thermal Sensors
f Engineers Edge
g GoodFellow
h Physical Properties and Moisture Relations of Wood
i Other listings within Wikipedia references (this table may not be cited, pure elements are sourced from Chemical elements data references, otherwise an in-table linked-page must list the relevant references)
j Clarity requires that no reference is to use this letter
k Thermal Properties - Silica Aerogels

Thermal conductivity of air as a function of temperature can be found at James Ierardi's Fire Protection Engineering Site