Language delay

Jump to: navigation, search

WikiDoc Resources for Language delay


Most recent articles on Language delay

Most cited articles on Language delay

Review articles on Language delay

Articles on Language delay in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Language delay

Images of Language delay

Photos of Language delay

Podcasts & MP3s on Language delay

Videos on Language delay

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Language delay

Bandolier on Language delay

TRIP on Language delay

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Language delay at Clinical

Trial results on Language delay

Clinical Trials on Language delay at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Language delay

NICE Guidance on Language delay


FDA on Language delay

CDC on Language delay


Books on Language delay


Language delay in the news

Be alerted to news on Language delay

News trends on Language delay


Blogs on Language delay


Definitions of Language delay

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Language delay

Discussion groups on Language delay

Patient Handouts on Language delay

Directions to Hospitals Treating Language delay

Risk calculators and risk factors for Language delay

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Language delay

Causes & Risk Factors for Language delay

Diagnostic studies for Language delay

Treatment of Language delay

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Language delay


Language delay en Espanol

Language delay en Francais


Language delay in the Marketplace

Patents on Language delay

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Language delay

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Language delay is a failure to develop language abilities on the usual developmental timetable. Language delay is distinct from speech delay, in which the speech mechanism itself is the focus of delay. Thus, language delay refers specifically to a delay in the development of the underlying knowledge of language, rather than its implementation.

The difference between language and speech can be understood by considering the relationship between a computer program and an output device like a printer. The software running on the computer (a word processing program, for example) is designed to allow a user to create content that is stored in the computer. In order to actually create a physical copy of the file, the computer requires another device: a printer. The printer takes the file and transforms it into a series of commands which control the movement of a print head, thereby making marks on paper.

This two-stage process is something like the distinction between language (computer program) and speech (printer). When we want to communicate something, the first stage is to encode the message into a set of words and sentence structures that convey our meaning. These processes are collectively what we refer to as language. In the second stage, language is translated into motor commands that control the articulators, thereby creating speech. Speech refers to the actual process of making sounds, using such organs and structures as the lungs, vocal cords, mouth, tongue, teeth, etc.

Because language and speech are two independent stages, they may be individually delayed. For example, a child may be delayed in speech (i.e., unable to produce intelligible speech sounds), but not delayed in language. In this case, the child would be attempting to produce an age-appropriate amount of language, but that language would be difficult or impossible to understand. Conversely, a child with a language delay typically has not yet had the opportunity to produce speech sounds; it is therefore likely to have a delay in speech as well.

Language delay is commonly divided into receptive and expressive categories. Receptive language refers to the process of understanding what is said to us. Expressive language refers to the use of words and sentences to communicate what we think, need, and want.

Language delay is a risk factor for other types of developmental delay, including social, emotional, and cognitive delay, though some children may grow out these deficits, even excelling where they onced lagged, while others may not. One particularly common result of language delay is delayed or inadequate acquisition of reading skills. Reading depends upon an ability to code and decode script (i.e., match speech sounds with symbols, and vice versa). If a child is still struggling to master language and speech, it is very difficult to then learn another level of complexity (writing). Thus, it is crucial that children have facility with language in order to be successful readers.

Neuroscientist Steven Pinker postulates that a certain form of language delay may be associated with exceptional and innate analytical prowess in some individuals, such as Albert Einstein, among others. [1]

In 2005, researchers found a connection between expressive language delay and a genetic abnormality: a duplicate set of the same genes that are missing in sufferers of Williams-Beuren syndrome.[2]

Many reports show there is really no clear evidence that language delay that can be prevented by training or educating the medical home visitor or health care professional. Overall, some of the reviews show positive results regarding interventions in language delay, but are not curing. (Commentary--Early Identification of Language Delays, 2005)

See also


  1. Steven Pinker. "His Brain Measured Up". Unknown parameter |access date= ignored (|access-date= suggested) (help)