|Californian kelp forest|
Californian kelp forest
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
|Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Kelp are large seaweeds (algae), belonging to the brown algae and classified in the order Laminariales. Despite their appearance they are not grouped with the normal aquatic or land plants (kingdom Plantae), but instead are included in either kingdom Protista or Chromista. There are about 30 different genera. Kelp grows in underwater forests (kelp forests) in clear, shallow oceans, requiring nutrient-rich water below about 20 °C. It offers protection to some sea creatures, or food for others. It is known for its high growth rate — the genus Macrocystis and Nereocystis luetkeana grow as fast as half a metre a day, ultimately reaching 30 to 80 m.
Through the 19th Century, the word "kelp" was closely associated with seaweeds that could be burned to obtain soda ash (primarily sodium carbonate). The seaweeds used included species from both the orders Laminariales and Fucales. The word "kelp" was also used directly to refer to these processed ashes.
In most kelp, the thallus (or body), consists of flat or leaf-like structures known as blades. Blades originate from elongated stem-like structures, the stipes. The holdfast, a root-like structure anchors the kelp to the substrate of the ocean. Gas-filled bladders (pneumatocysts) form at the base of blades of American species, such as Nereocystis lueteana (Mert.& Post & Rupr.) and keep the kelp blades close to the surface.
Growth and reproduction
Growth occurs at the base of the meristem, where the blades and stipe meet. Growth may be limited by grazing pressure, for example sea urchins can reduce entire areas to urchin barrens. The kelp life cycle involves a diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte stage. The haploid phase begins when the mature organism releases many spores, which then germinate to become male or female gametophytes. Sexual reproduction then results in the beginning of the diploid sporophyte stage which, if lucky, will develop into a mature plant.
Bongo kelp ash is rich in iodine and alkali. In great amount, kelp ash can be used in soap and glass production. Until the Leblanc process was commercialized in the early 1800s, burning of kelp in Scotland was one of the principal industrial sources of soda ash (predominantly sodium carbonate). Alginate, a kelp-derived carbohydrate, is used to thicken products such as ice cream, jelly, salad dressing, and toothpaste, as well as an ingredient in exotic dog food and in manufactured goods. Giant kelp can be harvested fairly easily because of its surface canopy and growth habit of staying in deeper water.
Kombu (Laminaria japonica and others), several Pacific species of kelp, is a very important ingredient in Japanese cuisine. Kombu is used to flavor broths and stews (especially dashi), as a savory garnish (tororo konbu) for rice and other dishes, as a vegetable, and a primary ingredient in popular snacks (such as tsukudani). Transparent sheets of kelp (oboro konbu) are used as an edible decorative wrapping for rice and other foods.
Kombu can be used to soften beans during cooking, and to help convert indigestible sugars and thus reduce flatulence.
Kelp in history and culture
During the Highland Clearances, many Scottish Highlanders were moved off their crofts, and went to industries such as fishing and kelping (producing soda ash from the ashes of kelp). At least until the 1820s, when there were steep falls in the price of kelp, landlords wanted to create pools of cheap or virtually free labour, supplied by families subsisting in new crofting townships. Kelp collection and processing was a very profitable way of using this labour, and landlords petitioned successfully for legislation designed to stop emigration. But the economic collapse of the kelp industry in northern Scotland led to further emigration, especially to North America.
See the article on seaweed fertiliser.
- Bull-head kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana, a northwestern American species. Used by coastal indigenous peoples to create fishing nets.
- Giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, the largest seaweed. Found in the Pacific coast of North America and South America.
- Kombu, Laminaria japonica and others, several edible species of kelp found in Japan.
Species of Laminaria in the British Isles
- Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux (Oarweed; Tangle)
- Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie (Curvie)
- Laminaria ochroleuca Bachelot de la Pylaie
- Laminaria saccharina (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux (sea belt; sugar kelp; sugarwack)
Species of Laminaria world-wide
- Laminaria agardhii (NE. America)
- Laminaria angustata (Japan)
- Laminaria bongardina Postels et Ruprecht (Bering Sea to California)
- Laminaria cuneifolia (NE. America)
- Laminaria dentigera Klellm. (California - America)
- Laminaria digitata (NE. America)
- Laminaria ephemera Setchell (Sitka, Alaska, to Monterey County, California - America)
- Laminaria farlowii Setchell (Santa Cruz, California, to Baja California - America)
- Laminaria groenlandica (NE. America)
- Laminaria japonica (Japan)
- Laminaria longicruris (NE. America)
- Laminaria nigripes (NE. America)
- Laminaria ontermedia (NE. America)
- Laminaria pallida Greville ex J.Agardh (South Africa)
- Laminaria platymeris (NE. America)
- Laminaria saccharina (Linnaeus) Lamouroux (Aleutian Islands, Alaska to southern California America)
- Laminaria setchellii Silva (Aleutian Islands, Alaska to Baja California America)
- Laminaria sinclairii (Harvey ex Hooker f. ex Harvey) Farlow, Anderson et Eaton (Hope Island, British Columbia to Los Angeles, California - America)
- Laminaria solidungula (NE. America)
- Laminaria stenophylla (NE. America)
Other genera in the Laminariales which may be considered as "kelp".
- Alaria marginata Post. & Rupr. (Alaska and California - America
- Costaria costata (C.Ag.) Saunders Japan; Alaska, California - America)
- Durvillaea potatorum (Labillardière) Areschoug (Tasmania; Australia)
- Ecklonia brevipes J.Agardh (Australia; New Zealand)
- Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss (South Africa)
- Ecklonia radiata (C.Agardh) J.Agardh (Australia; Tasmania; New Zealand; South Africa)
- Eisena arborea Aresch. (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Montrey, Santa Catalina Island, California - America)
- Egregia menziesii (Turn.) Aresch.
- Hedophyllum sessile (C.Ag.) Setch (Alaska, California - America)
- Macrocystis angustifolia Bory (Australia; Tasmania and South Africa)
- Pleurophycus gardneri Setch. & Saund. (Alaska, California - America)
- Pterygophora californica Rupr. (Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Bahia del Ropsario, Baja Californis and California - America)
Some animals are named after the kelp, either because they inhabit the same habitat as kelp or because they feed on kelp. These include:
- Kelp crab (Pugettia producta), the Pacific coast of North America.
- Kelpfish (blenny) (e.g., Heterosticbus rostratus, genus Gibbonsia), the Pacific coast of North America.
- Kelp Goose (kelp hen) (Ocydromus fuscus), South America and the Falkland Islands
- Kelp Pigeon (sheathbill) (Chionis sp), Antarctic
- Thomas, D. 2002. Seaweeds. The Natural History Museum, London, p. 15. ISBN 0 565 09175 1
- "Kelp," in Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition). Oxford University Press, 1989. Retrieved 01 December 2006
- Clow, Archibald and Clow, Nan L. (1952). Chemical Revolution. Ayer Co Pub, June 1952, pp. 65–90. ISBN 0-8369-1909-2
- Kazuko, Emi: Japanese Cooking, p. 78, Hermes House, 2002, p. 78. ISBN 0-681-32327-2
- Graimes, Nicola: The Best-Ever Vegetarian Cookbook, Barnes & Noble Books, 1999, p. 59. ISBN 0-7607-1740-0
- allwords.com definition for "Kelper",
-  dictionary.com definition for "Kelper"
- Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2006. AlgaeBase version 4.2. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 07 December 2006
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Laminariales.|
- Kelp forest
- Bladder wrack
- KeLP programming system
- Monterey Bay Aquarium, which displays a kelp forest and its wildlife.