Jaundice epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Farnaz Khalighinejad, MD [2]

Overview

The incidence of jaundice is approximately 40,000 per 100,000 individuals of intensive care unit patients. Neonatal jaundice is more common among Asian and mixed Asian/white infants than white infants. Hepatocellular jaundice mainly from viral hepatitis commonly affects young patients. Cholestatic jaundice mainly from liver cancer, hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis commonly affects older patients. Male are more commonly affected by hepatocellular jaundice and liver cancer than female. Female are more commonly affected by hemolytic jaundice mainly from cholangiocarcinoma than male.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

Prevalence

  • In 2015, the prevalence of cirrhosis was approximately 270 per 100,000 individuals in the United States.[2]
    • Currently, approximately seventy percent of cirrhotic individuals are unaware of having liver disease and go undiagnosed.
    • The prevalence of cirrhosis is higher in areas with high illiteracy rates.
    • Chronic and heavy alcohol use is responsible for more than half of the cases of cirrhosis in the United States.

Mortality rate

  • The 10 year-mortality rate of cirrhosis is approximately 34- 66 percent, largely dependent on the cause of cirrhosis.[3]
  • In 2001, cirrhosis was the tenth leading cause of death among men and the twelfth leading cause of death among women in the United States.
  • In 2006, cirrhosis was the twelfth leading cause of overall deaths in United States.

Race

  • Neonatal jaundice is more common among Asian and mixed Asian/white infants compared to white infants.[4].
  • The prevalence of cirrhosis is higher in:[5]
    • Non-Hispanic blacks
    • Mexican Americans
    • Hispanics with hepatitis C infection

Age

Gender

References

  1. Bansal V, Schuchert VD (2006). "Jaundice in the intensive care unit". Surg. Clin. North Am. 86 (6): 1495–502. doi:10.1016/j.suc.2006.09.007. PMID 17116459.
  2. Scaglione S, Kliethermes S, Cao G, Shoham D, Durazo R, Luke A, Volk ML (2015). "The Epidemiology of Cirrhosis in the United States: A Population-based Study". J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 49 (8): 690–6. doi:10.1097/MCG.0000000000000208. PMID 25291348.
  3. Anderson RN, Smith BL (2003). "Deaths: leading causes for 2001". Natl Vital Stat Rep. 52 (9): 1–85. PMID 14626726.
  4. Setia S, Villaveces A, Dhillon P, Mueller BA (2002). "Neonatal jaundice in Asian, white, and mixed-race infants". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 156 (3): 276–9. PMID 11876673.
  5. Adams LA, Sanderson S, Lindor KD, Angulo P (2005). "The histological course of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a longitudinal study of 103 patients with sequential liver biopsies". J. Hepatol. 42 (1): 132–8. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2004.09.012. PMID 15629518.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 "Age and gender analysis of jaundice patients | Yu | The Journal of Bioscience and Medicine".
  7. Sajja KC, Mohan DP, Rockey DC (2014). "Age and ethnicity in cirrhosis". J. Investig. Med. 62 (7): 920–6. doi:10.1097/JIM.0000000000000106. PMC 4172494. PMID 25203153.




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