Hemophilia (patient information)

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What are the symptoms?

What are the causes?

Who is at highest risk?


When to seek urgent medical care?

Treatment options

Where to find medical care for (Hemophilia)?


What to expect (Outlook/Prognosis)?

Possible complications

(Hemophilia) On the Web

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FDA on (Hemophilia)

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Directions to Hospitals Treating (Hemophilia)

Risk calculators and risk factors for (Hemophilia)

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S.


Hemophilia refers to a group of bleeding disorders in which it takes a long time for the blood to clot.

What are the symptoms of Hemophilia?

  • The main symptom of hemophilia is bleeding. Mild cases may go unnoticed until later in life, when they occur during surgery or after trauma.
  • In more severe cases, serious bleeding may occur without any cause. Internal bleeding may occur anywhere. Bleeding into joints is common.

What causes Hemophilia?

  • When you bleed, the body launches a series of reactions that help the blood clot. This is called the coagulation cascade. The process involves special proteins called coagulation factors. When one or more of these clotting factors are missing, there is usually a higher chance of bleeding.
  • Hemophilia is caused by a lack of enough factor VIII or IX. In most cases, hemophilia is passed down through families (inherited). It most often affects males.


Most often, hemophilia is diagnosed after a person has an abnormal bleeding episode or when there is a known family history of the condition.

Treatment options

  • Standard treatment involves replacing the missing clotting factor through a vein (intravenous infusions).
  • Diagnosing a bleeding disorder is important so that the doctor can take extra care if you need surgery, and can test or warn other family members who might be affected.

Where to find medical care for Hemophilia?

Directions to Hospitals Treating Hemophilia

What to expect (Outlook/Prognosis)?

  • Many people with hemophilia are able to lead pretty normal lives. However, some patients have major bleeding events, most commonly bleeding into the joint spaces.
  • A small percentage of people with hemophilia may die from severe bleeding.