Filmjölk

Jump to: navigation, search

Filmjölk (also known as fil[1]) is a Swedish mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting milk with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides[2][3]. The bacteria metabolize lactose, the sugar naturally found in milk, into lactic acid. The acid gives filmjölk a sour taste and causes proteins in the milk, mainly casein, to coagulate, thus thickening the final product. The bacteria also produce a limited amount of diacetyl, which gives filmjölk its characteristic taste.[4] Filmjölk is similar to cultured buttermilk, kefir, or yoghurt in consistency, but fermented by different bacteria and thus has a slightly different taste. Compared with yoghurt, filmjölk tastes less sour. In Sweden, it is normally sold in 1-liter packages with live bacteria and has a stabilising effect on the stomach and intestines.[citation needed]

In Nordic countries, filmjölk is commonly eaten during breakfast or as a snack between meals (mellanmål) in the same manner as yoghurt, usually from a bowl with a spoon. It can be drunk but is not normally done so since the liquid is fairly thick. Filmjölk is often eaten with breakfast cereal, müesli or crushed crisp bread. Since plain filmjölk tastes sour, many people add sugar, jam, applesauce, cinnamon, fruits, and berries to make the taste more palatable.

During the 1960s, Swedes normally ate regular, unflavoured filmjölk containing 3% milkfat. Since the 1970s, a proliferation of different types of filmjölk has been marketed in Swedish grocery stores. In 1997, Arla introduced its first flavoured filmjölk: strawberry flavoured filmjölk.[5] The flavoured filmjölk was so popular that different flavours soon followed. By 2001, almost one third of the filmjölk sold in Sweden was flavoured filmjölk.[6] Since 2007, variations of filmjölk include filmjölk with various fat content, filmjölk flavoured with fruit, vanilla, or honey, as well as filmjölk with bacteria that is considered extra healthy, such as Arla Onaka fil which contains Bifidobacterium lactis (a bacteria popular in Japan)[7] and Verum Hälsofil which contains Lactococcus lactis L1A in quantities of at least 10 billion live bacteria per deciliter.[8]

In English

There is currently no accepted English term for fil or filmjölk. Fil and/or filmjölk has been translated to English as sour milk[9], soured milk,[9][10] acidulated milk,[11] fermented milk,[12] and curdled milk,[13] all of which are nearly synonymous and describe filmjölk but do not differentiate filmjölk from other types of soured/fermented milk. Filmjölk has also been described as viscous fermented milk[14] and viscous mesophilic fermented milk,[14] as well as incorrectly translated to junket. [15] Furthermore, articles written in English can be found that use the Swedish term filmjölk,[16][17] as well as the incorrect spellings filmjolk,[18] fil mjölk,[19][20] and fil mjolk.[21]

In Finland Swedish

In Finland Swedish, a dialect of Swedish spoken by Swedish-speaking Finns, fil in Finland is the equivalent of filbunke in Sweden.[22] With the exception of filbunke and långfil, all variants of filmjölk are not found in Finland and Swedish-speaking Finns do not use the term filmjölk. The most similar product to filmjölk in Finland is surmjölk (in Finland Swedish) or piimä (in Finnish),[22] which is a fermented milk product that is thinner than filmjölk and resembles cultured buttermilk.

Types of filmjölk in Sweden

In Sweden, there are six Swedish dairy cooperatives that produce filmjölk: Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Milko, Norrmejerier, and Skånemejerier. In addition, Wapnö AB, a Swedish dairy company, and Valio, a Finnish dairy company, also sell a limited variety of filmjölk in Sweden. Prior to the manufacture of filmjölk, many families made filmjölk at home.

Fil culture is a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, e.g., Arla's fil culture contains Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis biovar. diacetylactis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris.[2][3][6]

Classical filmjölk variants

Name Literal translation Milkfat content Fermentation culture Produced by Year introduced Description
Filmjölk 2.5%-3%[23][24][25][26] fil culture Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Milko, Norrmejerier, Skånemejerier, Wapnö AB 1931 (Arla) "Regular" filmjölk. Filmjölk made from 3% milk. Comes unflavoured and flavoured. Also comes in a variant made from organic milk, a low-lactose variant that has been treated with lactase enzyme, a variant with added fiber (f-fil, fil med fiber), and a variant with higher milkfat content (Arla Vår finaste filmjölk, 3.8–4.5% milkfat). Has been in the Swedish language since 1741.[27]
Mellanfil middle (lowfat) filmjölk 1.3%[25], 1.5%[28] fil culture Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Milko, Norrmejerier, Skånemejerier 1990 (Arla) Filmjölk made from 1.5% milk. Comes unflavoured only.
Lättfil light (nonfat) filmjölk 0.4%, 0.5%[25][29] fil culture Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Milko, Norrmejerier, Skånemejerier, Wapnö AB 1967 (Arla), 1968[30] Filmjölk made from 0.5% milk. Comes unflavoured and flavoured. Also comes in a low-lactose variant that has been treated with lactase enzyme.
Långfil

fi: pitkäviili

long fil 3%[31] fil culture + Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis var. longi[31] Arla Foods, Gefleortens Mejeri, Norrmejerier 1965 (Arla)[31] Filmjölk with a characteristic long and almost elastic texture due to Lactococcus lactis var. Longi, a bacteria that converts the carbohydrates in milk into long chains of polysaccharides. Comes unflavoured only. More common in northern Sweden. Sometimes eaten with ground ginger. Has been in the Swedish language since 1896.[32]
Bollnäsfil[33][34] Bollnäs fil 3% fil culture from Bollnäs Milko Filmjölk that originated in Bollnäs. Comes unflavoured or vanilla flavoured.
Fjällfil[35][36] mountain fil 0.8%, 3.8–4.5% special fil culture Milko Filmjölk that tingles the tongue when you eat it, like champagne. Comes unflavoured only.

Filbunke
fi-se: Fil[37]
fi: Viili

bowl of fil 2.5%,[38] 4%[39] special fil culture Milko, Valio Milk that has fermented, unstirred, in small bowls.[40] Has a pudding-like consistency. Similar to unstirred långfil. Traditionally made in small bowls from (unpasteurized and unhomogenized) raw milk, which normally contains some cream. The cream forms a yellowish layer of sour cream on top. Comes unflavoured only. Has been in the Swedish language since 1652.[40]
Laktosfri Fil[41] lactose-free fil 3.5% fil culture Valio Filmjölk made from 3.5% milk and treated with lactase enzyme. Comes unflavoured only.

Other filmjölk variants

Name Literal translation Milkfat content Fermentation culture Produced by Year introduced Description
A-fil 0.5%, 2.7%, 3%[42] fil culture + Lactobacillus acidophilus[42] Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Milko, Skånemejerier, Wapnö AB 1984 (Arla)[5] Filmjölk with Lactobacillus acidophilus, a commonly used probiotic bacteria.[43][44] Comes unflavoured and flavoured.
Cultura aktiv fil[45] active culture fil 0.1% fil culture + Lactobacillus casei F19 Arla Foods 2004[46] Filmjölk with Lactobacillus casei F19, a patented[47] probiotic[48] bacteria. Comes unflavoured only.
Kefir[6] good tasting, healthy 3% Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Candida kefyr Arla Foods 1977 Filmjölk variant based on kefir, a probiotic food;[49] only contains a small subset of microorganisms found in kefir grains. Originated in Caucasus. Comes unflavoured.
Onaka[7] stomach 1.5% fil culture + Bifidobacterium lactis Arla Foods 1990 Filmjölk with Bifidobacterium lactis, a probiotic bacteria[44] popular in Japan. Comes unflavoured and flavoured.
Philura[50][51] 1.5%, 2.6% Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus casei Milko 2003[52] Tastes somewhere between regular filmjölk and yogurt. Contains probiotic bacteria[43][44] that is normally found in the digestive system. Comes unflavoured and flavoured.
Verum hälsofil[8] true health fil 0.5%, 4% Lactococcus lactis L1A Norrmejerier 1990[53] Filmjölk that contains at least 10 x 109 Lactococcus lactis L1A bacteria per deciliter. Comes unflavoured and flavoured. Lactococcus lactis L1A is a patented probiotic bacteria that originated from a culture of långfil from a farm in Västerbotten.[53] In 1998 Verum hälsofil was approved as a natural medical product (naturläkemedel) by the Swedish national regulatory agency Medical Products Agency (Läkemedelsverket).[54] It has been shown to have a positive effect on the immune and digestive system.
Öresundsfil[55][56][57] Öresund's fil 0.9%, 1% fil culture + Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium Skånemejerier 2000[58] Filmjölk with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium, probiotic bacteria.[43][44] Comes unflavoured and flavoured.
ProViva Naturell Filmjölk[59] ProViva unflavoured filmjölk 1% fil cuture + Lactobacillus plantarum 299v Skånemejerier 1994[60] Filmjölk that contains at least 50 x 106 Lp 299v per milliliter. Comes unflavoured. Lp 299v, a patented probiotic bacteria,[61] has been shown to decrease the symptoms of colon irritation and stressed digestive system in people who consumed ProViva.[62][63]

Homemade filmjölk

To make filmjölk, a small amount of bacteria from an active batch of filmjölk is normally transferred to pasteurized milk and then left one to two days to ferment at room temperature or in a cool cellar. Pasteurized milk must be mixed with fil culture to create filmjölk because the naturally occurring bacteria in milk is killed during the pasteurization process.

A variant of filmjölk called tätmjölk, filtäte, täte or långmjölk is made by rubbing the inside of a container with plants of the genus Drosera (called sileshår in Swedish)[64] or with leaves from plants of the genus Pinguicula (called tätört in Swedish).[65][66][67] Lukewarm milk is added to the container and left to ferment for one to two days. More tätmjölk can then be made by adding completed tätmjölk to milk. Carl von Linné described in Flora Lapponica (1737) a recipe for tätmjölk and wrote that any species of Pinguicula could be used to make tätmjölk.[65]

Drosera and Pinguicula are carnivorous plants that have enzymes that degrade proteins, which make the milk thick.[citation needed] How Pinguicula influences the production of tätmjölk is not completely understood; lactic acid bacteria have not been isolated during analyses of Pinguicula.[65]

There is a common belief that tätmjölk can not be made when there is a thunderstorm.[67]

References

  1. Nordstedts svenska ordbok (in Swedish). Norway: Språkdata, Sture Allén och Nordstedts Ordbok AB. 1999 [1990]. p. 242. ISBN 91-7227-134-5.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Ekologisk filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  4. "Kulturmjölk - grundfakta" (in Swedish). Mjölkfrämjandet. 2005. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Arla genom åren" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Mjölkkultur och kulturmjölk" (PDF) (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Filmjölk: Onaka" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Verum Hälsofil 0,5 % och 4,0 %" (in Swedish). Norrmejerier. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Translation of: fil". Language Council of Sweden: Institute for Language and Folklore. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  10. "A wide choice: Products for its own specific purpose" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  11. "What is Proviva: The probiotic bacteria LP 299v" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  12. "Milk-based drinks provide strong competition to fizzy drinks". Arla Foods. 2003-02-28. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  13. "Commission Regulation (EC) No 2091/2005 of 15 December 2005 publishing, for 2006, the agricultural product nomenclature for export refunds introduced by Regulation (EEC) No 3846/87". Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 2005-12-15. Retrieved 2007-07-03.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "The World of Fermented Milks, Part 4: Viili and Långfil – exotic fermented products from Scandinavia" (PDF). Valio Foods & Functionals. Valio. 2003 (2): 3–5. 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  15. "New Gaio products in Sweden". Arla Foods. 2001-08-20. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  16. "Fermented Milk Products". Canadian Dairy Commission. 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  17. Carlsson, P. (1985). "Secretory and serum antibodies against Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in relation to ingestion of fermented milk products". Acta Odontol Scand. 43 (3): 147–53. PMID 3933276. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  18. Doeff, Gail Rosenbaum (1993-02-01). "All about Arla - Arla Ekonomisk Forening gears up for European Common Market". Dairy Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  19. "Self-Renewing DAIRY Cultures: FRESH FIL MJÖLK (from Sweden)". gemcultures.com. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  20. "Fil Mjölk Dairy/Soy Starter Culture". Anahata Balance. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  21. "Fermented Treasures: Cultured Food and Beverage Starter Cultures". fermentedtreasures.com. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Får man fil i Sverige?" (in Finland Swedish). Research Institute for the Languages of Finland. 1997-04. Retrieved 2007-08-21. Vår härliga fil motsvaras i Sverige av filbunke som filvännerna får laga hemma eftersom den inte saluförs av de svenska mejerierna. Surmjölk kan svensken missförstå som mjölk som förfarits eller förskämts (inte farit illa), så säg hellre filmjölk i Sverige även om det inte är riktigt samma sak. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  23. "Fil > Hallonfil med vanilj" (in Swedish). Norrmejerier. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  24. "Hallonfil 2,6 %" (in Swedish). Gefleortens Mejeri. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Falköpings Mejeri. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  26. "Filmjölk: Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  27. Språkdata, Göteborgs universitet (2000). Nationalencyklopedins ordbok (in Swedish). Höganäs: Bra Böcker. p. 400. ISBN 917133-802-0.
  28. "Filmjölk: Mellanfil" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  29. "Filmjölk: Lättfil" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  30. Språkdata, Göteborgs universitet (2000). Nationalencyklopedins ordbok (in Swedish). Höganäs: Bra Böcker. p. 986. ISBN 917133-802-0. sedan 1968
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 "Filmjölk: Långfil" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  32. Språkdata, Göteborgs universitet (2000). Nationalencyklopedins ordbok (in Swedish). Höganäs: Bra Böcker. p. 972. ISBN 917133-802-0.
  33. "Bollnäsfil Original" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  34. "Bollnäsfil Vanilj" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  35. "Fjällfil Original" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  36. "Fjällfil 0,8%" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  37. "Får man fil i Sverige?" (in Swedish). Research Institute for the Languages of Finland. 2007-01-02. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
  38. "Filbunke" (in Swedish). Valio. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  39. "Filbunke" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Språkdata, Göteborgs universitet (2000). Nationalencyklopedins ordbok (in Swedish). Höganäs: Bra Böcker. p. 399. ISBN 917133-802-0.
  41. "Laktosfri Fil-naturell" (in Swedish). Valio. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  42. 42.0 42.1 "Filmjölk: Ekologisk A-fil orginal" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 "Lactobacillus acidophilus". University of Maryland Medical Center. 2002-04-01. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 "Probiotics". PDRhealth, Thomson Healthcare. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
  45. "Filmjölk: Cultura aktiv fil" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  46. "Arlas Cultura smakar och gör gott" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. 2004-02-25. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  47. "Arla världspatent på ny laktobacill" (in Swedish). LivsmedelsSverige SLU. 2001-08-15. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  48. "Lactobacillus F19" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  49. Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando (2006). "Kefir: A symbiotic yeast-bacteria community with alleged healthy capabilities" (PDF). Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. 23: 67–74. Retrieved 2007-08-26. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  50. "Philura Original" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  51. "Philura äpple & nypon" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  52. "Milko årsredovisning 2003: Filmjölk" (PDF) (in Swedish). Milko. 2003. p. 13. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  53. 53.0 53.1 "Premiär för smaksatt Verum Hälsofil" (in Swedish). Norrmejerier. 2002-04-22. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  54. "Nyttiga bakterier bringar ordning i oroliga sommarmagar" (in Swedish). Norrmejerier. 2003-07-01. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
  55. "Öresundsfil naturell fil 1,0 L" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  56. "Öresundsfil björnbärsfil 1,0 L" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  57. "Öresundsfil vanilj 1,0 L" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  58. Uhlin, Torbjörn (2000). "Mjölkbonde med koll på miljön". Sveriges Natur (in Swedish). 2000 (3–4). Retrieved 2007-07-19. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  59. "ProViva Naturell Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  60. Ahrné, Siv (2006). "ProViva – ett levande livsmedel" (PDF) (in Swedish). Mejeritekniskt Forum. p. 10. Retrieved 2007-07-19. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  61. "Lactobacillus Plantarum 299v". Probi AB. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  62. "ProViva Frågor och svar" (PDF) (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. p. 6. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  63. "Documentation of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v" (DOC). Probi AB. 2004. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  64. Anderberg, Arne (1999-10-13). "Den virtuella floran: Drosera L.: Sileshår" (in Swedish). Naturhistoriska riksmuseet. Retrieved 2007-07-18. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  65. 65.0 65.1 65.2 "Filmjölk från Linnés tid" (PDF). Verumjournalen (in Swedish). 2002: 10. 2002. Retrieved 2007-07-18.
  66. Östman, Elisabeth. "Recept på filmjölk, filbunke och långmjölk". Iduns kokbok (in Swedish). Stockholm: Aktiebolaget Ljus, Isaac Marcus' Boktryckeriaktiebolag. p. 161. Retrieved 2007-07-18.
  67. 67.0 67.1 "Vad gjorde man med mjölken?" (in Swedish). Järnriket Gästrikland, Länsmuseet Gävleborg. Retrieved 2007-08-05.

External links

See also

de:Dickmilch fi:Viili sv:Filmjölk


Linked-in.jpg