Chocolate (pronounced ) comprises a number of raw and processed foods that are produced from the seed of the tropical cacao tree. Native to lowland tropical South America, cacao has been cultivated for three millennia in Central America and Mexico, with its earliest documented use around 1100 BC. All of the Mesoamerican peoples made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs, who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl, a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste, and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After being roasted and ground, the resulting products are known as chocolate or cocoa.
Much of the chocolate consumed today is made into bars that combine cocoa solids, fats like cocoa butter, and sugar. Chocolate has become one of the most popular flavours in the world. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes have become traditional on certain holidays: chocolate bunnies and eggs are popular on Easter, coins on Hanukkah, Santa Claus and other holiday symbols on Christmas, and hearts on Valentine's Day. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages, to produce chocolate milk and cocoa.
Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine, phenethylamine, and anandamide, which have physiological effects on the body. It has been linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Scientists claim that chocolate, eaten in moderation, can lower blood pressure. The presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals.
- 1 History
- 2 Production
- 3 Cacao
- 4 Physiological effects
- 5 Labelling
- 6 Popularity
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 See also
- 10 External links
The word "chocolate" comes from the Aztecs of Mexico, and is derived from the Nahuatl word xocolatl (pronounced [ʃoˈkolaːtɬ]), which is a combination of the words, xocolli, meaning "bitter", and atl, which is "water". The Aztecs associated chocolate with Xochiquetzal, the goddess of fertility. Chocolate is also associated with the Mayan god of fertility. Mexican philologist Ignacio Davila Garibi, proposed that "Spaniards had coined the word by taking the Maya word chocol and then replacing the Maya term for water, haa, with the Aztec one, atl." However, it is more likely that the Aztecs themselves coined the term, having long adopted into Nahuatl the Mayan word for the "cacao" bean; the Spanish had little contact with the Mayans before Cortés's early reports to the Spanish King of the beverage known as xocolatl. William Bright (personal communication cited in a 1977 article by Lyle Campbell ) noted that the word xocoatl does not occur in early Spanish or Nahuatl colonial sources.
Chocolate has been used as a drink for nearly all of its history. The earliest record of using chocolate pre-dates the Maya. In November, 2007, archeologists reported finding evidence of the oldest known cultivation and use of cacao at a site in Puerto Escondido, Honduras, dating from about 1100 to 1400 BC.  The residues found and the kind of vessel they were found in, indicate that the initial use of cacao was not simply as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was likely used as a source of sugar for an alcoholic drink. The chocolate residue found in an early classic ancient Maya pot in Río Azul, northern Guatemala, suggests that Mayans were drinking chocolate around 400 A.D.. In the New World, chocolate was consumed in a bitter, spicy drink called xocoatl, and was often flavored with vanilla, chile pepper, and achiote (known today as annatto). Xocoatl was believed to fight fatigue, a belief that is probably attributable to the theobromine content. Other chocolate drinks combined it with such edibles as maize starch paste (which acts as an emulsifier and thickener), various fruits, and honey.Template:Fix/category In 1689 noted physician and collector Hans Sloane, developed a milk chocolate drink in Jamaica which was initially used by apothecaries, but later sold by the Cadbury brothers.
Chocolate was also an important luxury good throughout pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and cacao beans were often used as currency. For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost one hundred cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans.
Roughly two-thirds of the entire world's cocoa is produced in Western Africa, with 43% sourced from Côte d'Ivoire. Like many food industry producers, individual cocoa farmers are at the mercy of volatile world markets. The price can vary from £500 ($945) to £3,000 ($5,672) per ton, in the space of just a few years. While investors trading in cacao can dump shares at will, individual cocoa farmers cannot increase production or abandon trees very quickly. When cocoa prices drop, farmers in West Africa sometimes cut costs by using slave labor. It has been alleged that an estimated 90% of cocoa farms in Côte d'Ivoire have used some form of slave labor in order to remain viable. According to the World Cocoa Foundation, some 50 million people around the world depend on cocoa as a source of livelihood.  The industry is dominated by three chocolate makers, Barry Callebaut, Cargill and Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) and in the UK, 99.999% of chocolatiers, whether they be large companies such as Cadbury Schweppes or small independents, purchase their chocolate from them, to melt, mould and package to their own design. 
Despite some disagreement in the EU about the definition, chocolate is any product made primarily of cocoa solids and cocoa fat. The different flavours of chocolate can be obtained by varying the time and temperature when roasting the beans, by adjusting the relative quantities of the cocoa solids and cocoa fat, and by adding non-chocolate ingredients.
Production costs can be decreased by reducing cocoa solid content or by substituting cocoa butter with a non-cocoa fat. Cocoa growers oppose allowing the resulting food to be called "chocolate", because that would lower demand for their crops.
There are two main jobs associated with creating chocolate candy, chocolate makers and chocolatiers. Chocolate makers use harvested cacao beans and other ingredients to produce couverture chocolate. Chocolatiers use the finished couverture to make chocolate candies (bars, truffles, baked goods, etc.).
Criollo is the rarest and most expensive cocoa on the market and is native to Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern tier of South American states.Template:Fix/category There is some dispute about the genetic purity of cocoas sold today as Criollo, because most populations have been exposed to the genetic influence of other varieties. Criollos are particularly difficult to grow, as they are vulnerable to a variety of environmental threats and produce low yields of cocoa per tree. The flavour of Criollo is unique. It is described as delicate yet complex, low in classic chocolate flavour, but rich in "secondary" notes of long duration.Template:Fix/category
Forastero is a large group of wild and cultivated cacaos, most likely native to the Amazon basin. The African cocoa crop is entirely of the Forastero variety. They are significantly hardier and of higher yield than Criollo. Forastero cocoas are typically strong in classic "chocolate" flavour, but have a short duration and are unsupported by secondary flavours. There are exceptional Forasteros, such as the "Nacional" or the "Arriba" varieties, which can be very complex flavors.Template:Fix/category
Trinitario is a natural hybrid of Criollo and Forastero. Trinitario originated in Trinidad (hence the name) after an introduction of (Amelonado) Forastero to the local Criollo crop. These cocoas encompass a wide range of flavour profiles according to the genetic heritage of each tree.Template:Fix/category
Nearly all cacao produced over the past five decades is of the Forastero or lower-grade Trinitario varieties. The share of higher quality Criollos and Trinitarios (so-called flavour cacao) is just under 5%.
Cacao trees are small understory trees that need rich well drained soils. They naturally grow within 20 degrees of either side of the equator because they need about 2000 milimeters of rainfall a year, and temperatures in the range of 21-32 degrees Celsius, and cannot tolerate a temperature lower than 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit).
Harvesting cacao beans is a delicate process. First, the pods, containing cacao beans, are harvested. The beans, together with their surrounding pulp, are removed from the pod and placed in piles or bins to ferment for three to seven days. The fermentation process is what gives the beans their familiar chocolate taste. The beans must then be quickly dried to prevent mold growth; weather permitting, this is done by spreading the beans out in the sun.
The dried beans are transported from the plantation where they were grown to a chocolate manufacturing facility.
The beans are then cleaned (removing twigs, stones, and other debris), roasted, and graded. Next the shells are removed to extract the nib. Finally, the nibs are ground which releases and melts the cocoa butter producing chocolate liquor.
There are three things that can be done with the chocolate liquor at this point:
- It can be solidified and sold as unsweetened baking chocolate.
- Cocoa butter can be removed from it and the result is cocoa powder. There are several mechanisms for removing cocoa butter from chocolate liquor. These include using hydraulic pressure and the Broma process.
- Cocoa butter can be added to it to make eating chocolate.
Chocolate liquor is blended with the cocoa butter in varying quantities to make different types of chocolate or couvertures. The basic blends of ingredients for the various types of chocolate (in order of highest quantity of cocoa liquor first), are as follows:
- Dark chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, and (sometimes) vanilla
- Milk chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, milk or milk powder, and vanilla
- White chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, milk or milk powder, and vanilla
Usually, an emulsifying agent such as soya lecithin is added, though a few manufacturers prefer to exclude this ingredient for purity reasons and to remain GMO-free (Soya is a heavily genetically modified crop), sometimes at the cost of a perfectly smooth texture. Some manufacturers are now using PGPR, an artificial emulsifier derived from castor oil that allows them to reduce the amount of cocoa butter while maintaining the same mouthfeel.
The texture is also heavily influenced by processing, specifically conching (see below). The more expensive chocolates tend to be processed longer and thus have a smoother texture and "feel" on the tongue, regardless of whether emulsifying agents are added.
Different manufacturers develop their own "signature" blends based on the above formulas but varying proportions of the different constituents are used.
The finest plain dark chocolate couvertures contain at least 70% cocoa (solids + butter), whereas milk chocolate usually contains up to 50%. High-quality white chocolate couvertures contain only about 33% cocoa. Some mass-produced chocolate contains much less cocoa (as low as 7% in many cases) and fats other than cocoa butter. Some chocolate makers say that these "chocolate" products should not be classed as couvertures, or even as chocolate, because of the low or virtually non-existent cocoa content. Template:Fix/category
In 2007, the Chocolate Manufacturers Association in the United States, whose members include Hershey, Nestlé, and Archer Daniels Midland, lobbied the Food and Drug Administration to change the legal definition of chocolate to let them substitute partially hydrogenated vegetable oils for cocoa butter in addition to using artificial sweeteners and milk substitutes. Currently, the FDA does not allow a product to be referred to as "chocolate" if the product contains any of these ingredients. 
The penultimate process is called conching. A conche is a container filled with metal beads, which act as grinders. The refined and blended chocolate mass is kept liquid by frictional heat. Chocolate prior to conching has an uneven and gritty texture. The conching process produces cocoa and sugar particles smaller than the tongue can detect, hence the smooth feel in the mouth. The length of the conching process determines the final smoothness and quality of the chocolate. High-quality chocolate is conched for about 72 hours, lesser grades about four to six hours. After the process is complete, the chocolate mass is stored in tanks heated to approximately 45–50 °C (113–122 °F) until final processing.
The final process is called tempering. Uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size, some or all large enough to be clearly seen with the naked eye. This causes the surface of the chocolate to appear mottled and matte, and causes the chocolate to crumble rather than snap when broken. The uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed chocolate are the result of consistently small cocoa butter crystals produced by the tempering process.
The fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in six different forms (polymorphous crystallization). The primary purpose of tempering is to assure that only the best form is present. The six different crystal forms have different properties.
|I||17 °C (63 °F)||Soft, crumbly, melts too easily.|
|II||21 °C (70 °F)||Soft, crumbly, melts too easily.|
|III||26 °C (78 °F)||Firm, poor snap, melts too easily.|
|IV||28 °C (82 °F)||Firm, good snap, melts too easily.|
|V||34 °C (94 °F)||Glossy, firm, best snap, melts near body temperature (37 °C).|
|VI||36 °C (97 °F)||Hard, takes weeks to form.|
Making good chocolate is about forming the most of the type V crystals. This provides the best appearance and mouth feel and creates the most stable crystals so the texture and appearance will not degrade over time. To accomplish this, the temperature is carefully manipulated during the crystallization.
Generally, the chocolate is first heated to 45 °C (113 °F) to melt all six forms of crystals. Then the chocolate is cooled to about 27 °C (80 °F), which will allow crystal types IV and V to form (VI takes too long to form). At this temperature, the chocolate is agitated to create many small crystal "seeds" which will serve as nuclei to create small crystals in the chocolate. The chocolate is then heated to about 31 °C (88 °F) to eliminate any type IV crystals, leaving just the type V. After this point, any excessive heating of the chocolate will destroy the temper and this process will have to be repeated. However, there are other methods of chocolate tempering used-- the most common variant is introducing already tempered, solid "seed" chocolate. The temper of chocolate can be measured with a chocolate temper meter to ensure accuracy and consistency. A sample cup is filled with the chocolate and placed in the unit which then displays or prints the results.
Two classic ways of manually tempering chocolate are:
- Working the molten chocolate on a heat-absorbing surface, such as a stone slab, until thickening indicates the presence of sufficient crystal "seeds"; the chocolate is then gently warmed to working temperature.
- Stirring solid chocolate into molten chocolate to "inoculate" the liquid chocolate with crystals (this method uses the already formed crystal of the solid chocolate to "seed" the molten chocolate).
Chocolate tempering machines (or temperers) with computer controls can be used for producing consistently tempered chocolate, particularly for large volume applications.
Chocolate is very sensitive to temperature and humidity. Ideal storage temperatures are between 15 and 17 degrees Celsius (59 to 63 degrees Fahrenheit), with a relative humidity of less than 50%. Chocolate should be stored away from other foods as it can absorb different aromas. Ideally, chocolates are packed or wrapped, and placed in proper storage with the correct humidity and temperature. Additionally chocolate should be stored in a dark place or protected from light by wrapping paper. Various types of "blooming" effects can occur if chocolate is stored or served improperly. If refrigerated or frozen without containment, chocolate can absorb enough moisture to cause a whitish discoloration, the result of fat or sugar crystals rising to the surface. Moving chocolate from one temperature extreme to another, such as from a refrigerator on a hot day can result in an oily texture. Although visually unappealing, these conditions are perfectly safe for consumption.
Pleasure of consuming
Part of the pleasure of eating chocolate is due to the fact that its melting point is slightly below human body temperature: it melts in the mouth. A study reported by the BBC indicated that melting chocolate in one's mouth produced an increase in brain activity and heart rate that was more intense than that associated with passionate kissing, and also lasted four times as long after the activity had ended.
Potential health benefits and risks
Recent studies have suggested that cocoa or dark chocolate may possess certain beneficial effects on human health. Dark chocolate, with its high cocoa content, is a rich source of the flavonoids epicatechin and gallic acid, which are thought to possess cardioprotective properties. Cocoa possesses a significant antioxidant action, protecting against LDL oxidation, perhaps more than other polyphenol antioxidant-rich foods and beverages. Processing cocoa with alkali destroys most of the flavonoids. Some studies have also observed a modest reduction in blood pressure and flow-mediated dilation after consuming approximately 100g of dark chocolate daily. There has even been a fad diet, named "Chocolate diet", that emphasizes eating chocolate and cocoa powder in capsules. However, consuming milk chocolate or white chocolate, or drinking fat-containing milk with dark chocolate, appears largely to negate the health benefit. Processed cocoa powder (so called Dutch chocolate), processed with alkali greatly reduces the antioxidant capacity as compared to "raw" cocoa powder.  Chocolate is also a calorie-rich food with a high fat content, so daily intake of chocolate also requires reducing caloric intake of other foods.
Two-thirds of the fat in chocolate comes in the forms of a saturated fat called stearic acid and a monounsaturated fat called oleic acid. However, unlike other saturated fats, stearic acid does not raise levels of LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream. Consuming relatively large amounts of dark chocolate and cocoa does not seem to raise serum LDL cholesterol levels; some studies even find that it could lower them.
Several population studies have observed an increase in the risk of certain cancers among people who frequently consume sweet 'junk' foods such as chocolate. However, very little evidence exists to suggest whether consuming flavonoid-rich dark chocolate may increase or decrease the risk of cancer. Evidence from laboratory studies suggests that cocoa flavonoids may possess anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but more research is needed to prove this idea.
The major concern that nutritionists have is that even though eating dark chocolate may favorably affect certain biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, the amount needed to have this effect would provide a relatively large quantity of calories which, if unused, would promote weight gain. Obesity is a significant risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease. As a consequence, consuming large quantities of dark chocolate in an attempt to protect against cardiovascular disease has been described as 'cutting off one's nose to spite one's face'..
Studies suggest a specially formulated type of cocoa may boost brain function and delay decline as people age.
Mars, Incorporated, a Virginia-based candy company, spends millions of dollars each year on flavonol research.Template:Fix/category The company is talking with pharmaceutical companies to license drugs based on synthesized cocoa flavonol molecules. According to Mars-funded researchers at Harvard, the University of California, and European universities, cocoa-based prescription drugs could potentially help treat diabetes, dementia and other diseases.
Other research indicates that chocolate may be effective at preventing persistent coughing. The ingredient theobromine was found to be almost one third more effective than codeine, the leading cough medicine. The chocolate also appears to soothe and moisten the throat.
South American and European cultures have used cocoa to treat diarrhea for hundreds of years. A study done at Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland, in collaboration with scientists at Heinrich Heine University in Germany, has shown that flavonoids can inhibit the developmentTemplate:Fix/category[clarify] of fluids that result in diarrhea.
As a stimulant
- See also: chocoholism
Chocolate contains a variety of substances, some of which have an effect on body chemistry. These include:
- Theobromine, the primary alkaloid in cocoa and chocolate and partly responsible for chocolate's mood-elevating effect
- Tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin
- Phenethylamine, an endogenous alkaloid sometimes described as a 'love chemical; it is quickly metabolized by monoamine oxidase-B and does not reach the brain in significant amounts
- Caffeine, present only in very small amounts
Chocolate is a mild stimulant to humans mainly mainly due to the presence of theobromine. It is much more potent for horses, and its use in horse racing is prohibited. Theobromine is also a contributing factor in acid reflux due to its relaxing effects on the esophageal sphincter muscle.
Romantic lore commonly identifies chocolate as an aphrodisiac. The reputed aphrodisiac qualities of chocolate are most often associated with the simple sensual pleasure of its consumption. More recently, suggestion has been made that serotonin and other chemicals found in chocolate, most notably phenethylamine, can act as mild sexual stimulants. While there is no firm proof that chocolate is indeed an aphrodisiac, a gift of chocolate is a familiar courtship ritual..
There is a popular belief that the consumption of chocolate can cause acne. Various studies seem to show that this is the case for high glycemic index foods in general, though the question is still being studied. Milk is known to cause acne, including any which is mixed with chocolate.
Chocolate has one of the higher concentrations of lead among products that constitute a typical Westerner's diet. Recent studies have shown that although the beans themselves absorb little lead, it tends to bind to cocoa shells and contamination may occur during the manufacturing process. A recent peer-reviewed publication found significant amounts of lead in chocolate. A review article published in a peer-reviewed journal in 2006 states that despite high consumption levels of chocolate, there is a paucity of data on lead concentrations in chocolate products. In a USDA study in 2004, mean lead levels in the samples tested ranged from 0.0010 to 0.0965 µg lead per gram of chocolate, but another study by a Swiss research group in 2002 found that some chocolate contained up to 0.769 µg per gram, close to the international (voluntary) standard limit for lead in cocoa powder or beans, which is 1 µg of lead per gram. In 2006, the U.S. FDA lowered by one-fifth the amount of lead permissible in candy, but compliance is only voluntary. While studies show that the lead consumed in chocolate may not all be absorbed by the human body, there is no known threshold for the effects of lead on children's brain function and even small quantities of lead can cause permanent neurodevelopmental deficits including impaired IQ.
Toxicity in animals
In sufficient amounts, the theobromine found in chocolate is toxic to animals such as horses, dogs, parrots, small rodents, and cats (kittens especially) because they are unable to metabolise the chemical effectively. If they are fed chocolate, the theobromine will remain in their bloodstream for up to 20 hours, and these animals may experience epileptic seizures, heart attacks, internal bleeding, and eventually death. Medical treatment involves inducing vomiting within two hours of ingestion, or contacting a veterinarian.
A typical 20-kilogram (40-lb) dog will normally experience great intestinal distress after eating less than 240 grams (8.5 oz) of dark chocolate, but will not necessarily experience bradycardia or tachycardia unless it eats at least a half a kilogram (1.1 lb) of milk chocolate. Dark chocolate has 2 to 5 times more theobromine and thus is more dangerous to dogs. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, approximately 1.3 grams of baker's chocolate per kilogram of a dog's body weight (0.02 oz/lb) is sufficient to cause symptoms of toxicity. For example, a typical 25-gram (0.88 oz) baker's chocolate bar would be enough to bring about symptoms in a 20-kilogram (44 lb) dog. Of course, baking chocolate is rarely consumed directly due to its unpleasant taste, but other dark chocolates' canine toxicities may be extrapolated based on this figure. As dogs like the taste of chocolate products as much as humans do, and are capable of finding and eating quantities much larger than typical human servings, they should be kept out of their reach. There are reports that mulch made from cacao bean shells is dangerous to pets (and other animals). Treats made from carob can be used to substitute and pose no health threat to animals.Template:Fix/category
Some manufacturers provide the percentage of chocolate in a finished chocolate confection as a label quoting percentage of "cocoa" or "cacao". It should be noted that this refers to the combined percentage of both cocoa solids and cocoa butter in the bar, not just the percentage of cocoa solids .
In the United States, some large chocolate manufacturers are lobbying the federal government to permit confection containing cheaper hydrogenated vegetable oil in place of cocoa butter to be sold as "chocolate". This is controversial, and as of September 2007 the FDA has not yet consented to permit it.
The percentage of people in the world (according to Nestle.com) that prefer dark, milk, and white chocolate, respectively, are 68%, 22%, and 10%.
- Sides square off in chocolate fight
- Your Dictionary
- The True History of Chocolate, S. D. Coe and M. D. Coe, Pp 118-119, Thames & Hudson, 2000
- The Clever Mouse - History of Chocolate
- Theobroma... "Food of the gods" (accessed 17 September 2006)
- Quichean Linguistic Prehistory, Lyle Campbell, pp. 107, University of California Publications in Linguistics No. 81, University of California Press, Berkeley. 1977
- "New Chemical Analyses Take Confirmation Back 500 Years and Reveal that the Impetus for Cacao Cultivation was an Alcoholic Beverage 11/13/2007".
- About Hans Sloane (accessed 8 June 2007)
- Athena Review Vol.2, no.2 A Brief History of Chocolate, Food of the Gods (accessed 8 June 2007
Rita Ariyoshi. "The Rarest Chocolate in the World - Surprise: It’s made in Hawai‘i". Spirit of Aloha (Aloha Airlines) September/October 2007.
There are upwards of 6 million cacao farmers worldwide. Seventy percent of the world’s cocoa beans come from West Africa. The remaining crops are grown in Asia, South America and the Caribbean. All cacao countries are within 20 degrees north and south of the equator, and 75 percent are within 6 degrees of the equator. The one exception is Hawai‘i…
- "Bittersweet Chocolate". Retrieved 2006-06-27.
- "Truevision TV Slavery - a global investigation". Retrieved 2006-06-27.
- Dillon, Sheila (23 December 2007). "The Food Programme" (Real Audio). BBC Radio 4.
- "What's Noka Worth? An investigation in high-priced chocolate". Retrieved 2006-12-31.
- "International Cocoa Organization_ICCO_Questions_and_Answers_varieties". Retrieved 2006-06-27.
- ""All About Chocolate: The Cacao Tree"". Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- Bragg, Lynn (2007). "Letter to CMA from President (pdf)" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-06-08.
- "2007P-0085: Adopt Regulations of General Applicability to all Food Standards that would Permit, within Stated Boundaries, Deviations from the Requirements of the Individual Food Standards of Identity". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
- Copy of 2007P-0085 Appendix C "2007P-0085 Appendix C Changes Allowed to Modernize Food Standards While Retaining The Basic Nature and Essential Characteristics of Standardized Food" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
- Ghirardelli. "Tips for Chocolate Care". Retrieved 2007-04-16.
- Miller, Teresa (1997). "MILKFAT FRACTIONS HELP BEAT BLOOMING CHOCOLATE". College of Agricultural Life and Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved 2007-04-16.
- CocoaBella. "How to Store Chocolate". Retrieved 2007-04-16.
- "Chocolate as a Health Food?". Retrieved 2006-03-03.
- Serafini, M., Bugianesi, R., Maiani, G., Valtuena, S., De Santis, S. & Crozier, A. 2003. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate. Nature 424, 1013
- PDF file - requires subscription
- "Chocolate:Food of the Gods.". Yale-New Haven Hospital. Retrieved 2006-03-03.
- Kondo K, Hirano R, Matsumoto A, Igarashi O, Itakura H., Inhibition of LDL oxidation by cocoa, Lancet, November 1996; 348(2):1514.
- "A Critical Look at the Effects of Cocoa on Human Health.". Pabulum, 2004 Issue 61. Retrieved 2006-03-03.
- "New Benefits Found in Chocolate". Reuters, February 19, 2007.
- Chocolate good for your heart
- "The Standard - Mars talks up cocoa's medicinal potential - World Section". Retrieved 2006-06-27.
- Usmani, Omar S. (2005). "Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough" (PDF). FASEB Journal. 19 (2): 231–233. doi:10.1096/fj.04-1990fje. PubMed. Retrieved 2006-06-27.
- "Dark chocolate helps diarrhea". Children's Hospital & Research Center at Oakland. September 2005. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- Schuier, Maximilian (2005). "Cocoa-Related Flavonoids Inhibit CFTR-Mediated Chloride Transport across T84 Human Colon Epithelia" (PDF). Journal of Nutrition. 135 (10): 2320–2325. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- Matissek, R (1997). "Evaluation of xanthine derivatives in chocolate: nutritional and chemical aspects". European Food Research and Technology. 205 (3): 175–184.
- Liebowitz, Michael R. (1983). The chemistry of love. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0316524301.
- Smit HJ, Gaffan EA, Rogers PJ (2004). "Methylxanthines are the psycho-pharmacologically active constituents of chocolate". Psychopharmacology (Berl.). 176 (3-4): 412–9. PMID 15549276. doi:10.1007/s00213-004-1898-3.
- di Tomaso E, Beltramo M, Piomelli D (1996). "Brain cannabinoids in chocolate". Nature. 382 (6593): 677–8. PMID 8751435. doi:10.1038/382677a0.
- Magin P, Pond D, Smith W, Watson A (2005). "A systematic review of the evidence for 'myths and misconceptions' in acne management: diet, face-washing and sunlight". Fam Pract. 22 (1): 62–70. PMID 15644386. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmh715.
- Janet Raloff, "Leaden Chocolates", Science News 5 November 2005.  (accessed 22 September 2006)
- Rankin CW, Nriagu JO, Aggarwal JK, Arowolo TA, Adebayo K, Flegal AR. (2005) Lead contamination in cocoa and cocoa products: isotopic evidence of global contamination. Environmental Health Perspectives Oct;113(10):1344-8.  Abstract)
- Karrie Heneman and Sheri Zidenberg-Cherr, "Is Lead Toxicity Still a Risk to U.S. Children?", California Agriculture, Volume 60, Number 4 2006.  (accessed 15 February 2007)
- Lorraine Heller, "FDA issues new guidance on lead in candy", FoodNavigator.com November 29 2006.  (accessed 15 February 2007)
- Canfield RL, Henderson CR Jr, Cory-Slechta DA, Cox C, Jusko TA, Lanphear BP. (2003) Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microg per deciliter. New England Journal of Medicine Apr;348(16):1517-26.  (Abstract)
- Animal Control Poison Center
- Drolet R, Arendt TD, Stowe CM. Cacao bean shell poisoning in a dog. JAVMA 1984;185(8): 902.
- Blakemore F, Shearer GD. The poisoning of livestock by cacao products. Vet Record 1943;55(15).
- Bitter Chocolate: Investigating the Dark Side of the World's Most Seductive Sweet, by Carol Off, Random House, 2006.
- Chocolate, by the editors of Fine Cooking magazine, 2006.
- The True History of Chocolate, by Sophie D. Coe & Michael D. Coe, Thames & Hudson, 1996. ISBN-13 978-0500282298
- Naked Chocolate, by David Wolfe and Shazzie, Rawcreation, 2005.
- The Great Book of Chocolate, by David Lebovitz, Ten Speed Press, 2004.
- The Chocolate Connoisseur, by Chloe Doutre-Roussel, Piatkus, 2005.
- Green & Black's Chocolate Recipes, by Kyle Cathie Limited, 2003.
- Candyfreak: A Journey Through the Chocolate Underbelly of America (book) ISBN 0-15-603293-7
- McNeil, Cameron (editor) (2006). Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao. Gainesville: University of Florida Press. ISBN 0-8130-2953-8.
af:Sjokolade ar:شوكولا an:Chicolate ast:Chicolate zh-min-nan:Chi-ku-la̍t bs:Čokolada br:Chokolad bg:Шоколад ca:Xocolata cs:Čokoláda cy:Siocled da:Chokolade de:Schokolade et:Šokolaad el:Σοκολάτα eo:Ĉokolado eu:Txokolate fa:شکلات ga:Seacláid gd:Teòclaid gl:Chocolate ko:초콜릿 hy:Շոկոլադ hr:Čokolada io:Chokolado id:Cokelat is:Súkkulaði it:Cioccolato he:שוקולד ka:შოკოლადი la:Socolata lv:Šokolāde lt:Šokoladas li:Sjoekelaat ln:Sokolá (pɔtɔpɔ́tɔ) hu:Csokoládé ms:Coklat nah:Xocolātl nl:Chocolade nds-nl:Sokkeloa no:Sjokolade nn:Sjokolade nrm:Chocolat qu:Chukulati sco:Chocolate sq:Çokollata scn:Cioccolatti simple:Chocolate sk:Čokoláda sl:Čokolada sr:Чоколада sh:Čokolada fi:Suklaa sv:Choklad tl:Tsokolate ta:சாக்கலேட் th:ช็อกโกแลต tg:Шакалод uk:Шоколад ur:چاکلیٹ yi:טשאקאלאד zh-yue:朱古力 bat-smg:Čėkuolads