Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency

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Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency
ICD-9 270.6
OMIM 237300
DiseasesDB 32671
eMedicine ped/314 
MeSH D020165

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Overview

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia to accumulate in the blood. Ammonia, which is formed when proteins are broken down in the body, is toxic if the levels become too high. The nervous system is especially sensitive to the effects of excess ammonia.

Symptoms

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency often becomes evident in the first few days of life. An infant with this condition may be lacking in energy (lethargic) or unwilling to eat, and have a poorly controlled breathing rate or body temperature. Some babies with this disorder may experience seizures or unusual body movements, or go into a coma. Complications of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency may include developmental delay and mental retardation.

In some affected individuals, signs and symptoms of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency may be less severe, and may not appear until later in life.

Pathophysiology

Mutations in the CPS1 gene cause carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency belongs to a class of genetic diseases called urea cycle disorders. The urea cycle is a sequence of reactions that occurs in liver cells. This cycle processes excess nitrogen, generated when protein is used by the body, to make a compound called urea that is excreted by the kidneys.

In carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency, the enzyme that regulates the urea cycle is damaged or missing. The urea cycle cannot proceed normally, and nitrogen accumulates in the bloodstream in the form of ammonia. Ammonia is especially damaging to the nervous system, and excess ammonia causes neurological problems and other signs and symptoms of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency.

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means two copies of the gene in each cell are altered.

See also

Reference




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