CYYR1

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Identifiers
Aliases
External IDsGeneCards: [1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

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RefSeq (protein)

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Location (UCSC)n/an/a
PubMed searchn/an/a
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Cysteine and tyrosine-rich protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYYR1 gene[1][2][3] and is located on chromosome 21, location 21q21.2. This protein has a function that is not presently understood.

Protein

The product of the gene is a single pass type 1 transmembrane protein with four exons and a very large intron of 85.8 kb and coding for a protein containing 154 amino acids.[4] The most prominent feature identified in the protein is a central, unique cysteine and tyrosine-rich protein domain, on portion of the protein which is located inside the cell. This domain is found to be strongly conserved from lower vertebrates (fishes) to humans but is absent in bacteria and invertebrates.[2]

Properties and Domains

Bioinformatic analysis predicted the following properties for CYYR1:

  • Molecular Weight = 16.6kdal
  • Isoelectric Point = 8.28

The amino acid sequence is 153 amino acids long and contains 3 domains.[5]

1   MDAPRLPVRP GVLLPKLVLL FVYADDCLAQ CGKDCKSYCC DGTTPYCCSY
51  YAYIGNILSG TAIAGIVFGI VFIMGVIAGI AICICMCMKN HRATRVGILR
101 TTHINTVSSY PGPPPYGHDH EMEYCDLPPP YSPTPQGPAQ RSPPPPYPGN
151 ARK

Using bioinformatic tools the following domains were determined:

  • Signal Peptide[4] - Position 1-29
  • Transmembrane Domain[4] - Position 62-82
  • Poly-Proline Domain[4] - Position 144-149

Orthologs

Multiple sequence alignments were done with orthologs of the CYYR1 gene and they show that the protein sequence is highly conserved throughout all vertebrates.

Species Accession # Identity
Pan troglodytes XP_001158941.1 99.2%[6]
Macaca mulatta XP_001104127.1 95.5%[6]
Mus musculus NP_659102.1 88.2%[6]
Xenopus laevis NP_001088967.1 74.3%[6]
Danio rerio NP_998047.1 60.4%[6]

There are no known or predicted paralogs in homo sapiens.

Interactions

CYYR1 has been shown to increase glutathione level in yeast cells when complementing a defect in GSH uptake in yeast cells that lack Hgt1p, the primary yeast GSH uptake transporter.[7] However, the CYYR1 gene is not naturally found in yeast, so function of CYYR1 is still unknown.


References

  1. Reymond A, Camargo AA, Deutsch S, Stevenson BJ, Parmigiani RB, Ucla C, Bettoni F, Rossier C, Lyle R, Guipponi M, de Souza S, Iseli C, Jongeneel CV, Bucher P, Simpson AJ, Antonarakis SE (May 2002). "Nineteen additional unpredicted transcripts from human chromosome 21". Genomics. 79 (6): 824–32. doi:10.1006/geno.2002.6781. PMID 12036297.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Vitale L, Casadei R, Canaider S, Lenzi L, Strippoli P, D'Addabbo P, Giannone S, Carinci P, Zannotti M (Jun 2002). "Cysteine and tyrosine-rich 1 (CYYR1), a novel unpredicted gene on human chromosome 21 (21q21.2), encodes a cysteine and tyrosine-rich protein and defines a new family of highly conserved vertebrate-specific genes". Gene. 290 (1–2): 141–51. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00550-4. PMID 12062809.
  3. "Entrez Gene: CYYR1 cysteine/tyrosine-rich 1".
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Cysteine and tyrosine-rich protein 1 precursor - Homo sapiens".
  5. SDSC Biology Workbench 2.0
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 "Cysteine/tyrosine-rich 1 - Homo sapiens".
  7. Shi S, Notenboom S, Dumont ME, Ballatori N (Jan 2010). "Identification of Human Gene Products Containing Pro-Pro-x-Tyr (PY) Motifs that Enhance Glutathione and Endocytotic Marker Uptake in Yeast". Cell Physiol Biochem. 25 (2–3): 293–306. doi:10.1159/000276570. PMC 3030462. PMID 20110690.

Further reading




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