ACSL1

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Template:Infobox gene Long-chain-fatty-acid—CoA ligase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACSL1 gene.[1][2][3]

Structure

Gene

The ACSL4 gene is located on the 4th chromosome, with its specific location being 4q35.1. The gene contains 28 exons.[3]

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation.[3]

In melanocytic cells ACSL1 gene expression may be regulated by MITF.[4]

Function

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation.[3] Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This specific protein is most commonly found in mitochondria and peroxisomes.[5]

Clinical significance

ACSL1 was shown to be involved in nonspecific mental retardation and fatty-acid metabolism.[6] Since the ACSL4 gene is highly expressed in brain, where it encodes a brain specific isoform, an ASCL1 mutation may be an efficient diagnostic tool in mentally retarded males.[7]

Interactions

ACSL1 expression is regulated by SHP2 activity.[8] Additionally, ACSL4 interacts with ACSL3, APP, DSE, ELAVL1, HECW2, MINOS1, PARK2, SPG20, SUMO2, TP53, TUBGCP3, UBC, UBD, and YWHAQ.[3]

References

  1. Suzuki H, Kawarabayasi Y, Kondo J, Abe T, Nishikawa K, Kimura S, Hashimoto T, Yamamoto T (May 1990). "Structure and regulation of rat long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (15): 8681–5. PMID 2341402. 
  2. Stanczak H, Stanczak JJ, Singh I (Feb 1992). "Chromosomal localization of the human gene for palmitoyl-CoA ligase (FACL1)". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 59 (1): 17–9. PMID 1531127. doi:10.1159/000133189. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Entrez Gene: ACSL1 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1". 
  4. Hoek KS, Schlegel NC, Eichhoff OM, Widmer DS, Praetorius C, Einarsson SO, Valgeirsdottir S, Bergsteinsdottir K, Schepsky A, Dummer R, Steingrimsson E (Dec 2008). "Novel MITF targets identified using a two-step DNA microarray strategy". Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. 21 (6): 665–76. PMID 19067971. doi:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2008.00505.x. 
  5. Singh I, Lazo O, Kremser K (Sep 1993). "Purification of peroxisomes and subcellular distribution of enzyme activities for activation and oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids in rat brain". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1170 (1): 44–52. PMID 8399326. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(93)90174-8. 
  6. Meloni I, Muscettola M, Raynaud M, Longo I, Bruttini M, Moizard MP, Gomot M, Chelly J, des Portes V, Fryns JP, Ropers HH, Magi B, Bellan C, Volpi N, Yntema HG, Lewis SE, Schaffer JE, Renieri A (Apr 2002). "FACL4, encoding fatty acid-CoA ligase 4, is mutated in nonspecific X-linked mental retardation". Nature Genetics. 30 (4): 436–40. PMID 11889465. doi:10.1038/ng857. 
  7. Longo I, Frints SG, Fryns JP, Meloni I, Pescucci C, Ariani F, Borghgraef M, Raynaud M, Marynen P, Schwartz C, Renieri A, Froyen G (Jan 2003). "A third MRX family (MRX68) is the result of mutation in the long chain fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 (FACL4) gene: proposal of a rapid enzymatic assay for screening mentally retarded patients". Journal of Medical Genetics. 40 (1): 11–7. PMC 1735250Freely accessible. PMID 12525535. doi:10.1136/jmg.40.1.11. 
  8. Cooke M, Orlando U, Maloberti P, Podestá EJ, Cornejo Maciel F (Nov 2011). "Tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 regulates the expression of acyl-CoA synthetase ACSL4". Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (11): 1936–48. PMC 3196225Freely accessible. PMID 21903867. doi:10.1194/jlr.m015552. 

Further reading

External links


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