Revision as of 17:32, 20 August 2012 by WikiBot (talk | contribs) (Robot: Automated text replacement (-{{SIB}} +, -{{EH}} +, -{{EJ}} +, -{{Editor Help}} +, -{{Editor Join}} +))
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Template:Chembox new

WikiDoc Resources for Xanthine


Most recent articles on Xanthine

Most cited articles on Xanthine

Review articles on Xanthine

Articles on Xanthine in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Xanthine

Images of Xanthine

Photos of Xanthine

Podcasts & MP3s on Xanthine

Videos on Xanthine

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Xanthine

Bandolier on Xanthine

TRIP on Xanthine

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Xanthine at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Xanthine

Clinical Trials on Xanthine at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Xanthine

NICE Guidance on Xanthine


FDA on Xanthine

CDC on Xanthine


Books on Xanthine


Xanthine in the news

Be alerted to news on Xanthine

News trends on Xanthine


Blogs on Xanthine


Definitions of Xanthine

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Xanthine

Discussion groups on Xanthine

Patient Handouts on Xanthine

Directions to Hospitals Treating Xanthine

Risk calculators and risk factors for Xanthine

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Xanthine

Causes & Risk Factors for Xanthine

Diagnostic studies for Xanthine

Treatment of Xanthine

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Xanthine


Xanthine en Espanol

Xanthine en Francais


Xanthine in the Marketplace

Patents on Xanthine

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Xanthine

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Xanthine (3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.


Xanthine is a product on the pathway of purine degradation.

Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme.


People with the rare genetic disorder xanthinuria lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid.

Clinical significance of xanthine derivatives

Derivatives of xanthine, known collectively as xanthines, are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. On the contrary, they really only eliminate the actions of adenosine to some extent, adenosine causing sleepiness, thus they are by far less in effectiveness as stimulants than sympathomimetic amines. Their effects, however, are widespread and their therapeutic range is narrow, so they are not the drug of choice in asthma treatment. Therapeutic level is 10-20 micrograms/mL blood. Signs of toxicity include tremor, nausea, nervousness, and tachycardia/arrhythmia.

Methylated xanthine derivatives include caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine (found mainly in chocolate). These drugs inhibit phosphodiesterase and antagonise adenosine. Xanthines are also found very rarely as constituents of nucleic acids.


Template:Psychostimulants, agents used for ADHD and nootropics Template:Asthma and copd rx

da:Xanthin de:Xanthin gl:Metilxantinas nl:Xanthine

Template:WikiDoc Sources