Endometrial hyperplasia differential diagnosis
Endometrial hyperplasia must be differentiated from conditions that have a similar ultrasound findings such as normal thickening during the secretory phase, sessile endometrial polyp, submucosal uterine fibroids, endometrial cancer, an adherent intrauterine blood clot, and pregnancy.
- Endometrial hyperplasia must be differentiated from the following conditions that have abnormal thickening of the uterus:
- Early pregnancy prior to sac being visualized (<5 weeks of gestation)
- Ectopic pregnancy (thickened endometrium and sometimes fluid collection or pseudogestational sac can be associated)
- Retained products of conception (heterogeneously thickened endometrium with increased vascularity)
- Adherent intra-uterine blood clot (heterogeneous endometrium with no vascularity)
- Molar pregnancy thickened with multiple small cystic spaces
- Endometritis (prominent hyperechoic endometrium with of without fluid and debris)
- Endometrial carcinoma (variable appearance)
- Endometrial polyp or polyps (usually hyperechoic, often focal, look for vascular stalk)
- Submucosal uterine fibroids
- Intrauterine adhesions (irregular echogenic areas with focal thickening)
- The absence of PAX2 expression on immunohistochemistry is helpful in delineating EIN
- BCL-2 overexpression
- Hulka CA, Hall DA, McCarthy K, Simeone JF (1994). "Endometrial polyps, hyperplasia, and carcinoma in postmenopausal women: differentiation with endovaginal sonography". Radiology. 191 (3): 755–8. doi:10.1148/radiology.191.3.8184058. PMID 8184058.
- Endometrial hyperplasia. Radiopedia. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/endometrial-hyperplasia-1 Accessed on March 3, 2016.
- Abnormally thickened endometrium: differential diagnosis. Radiopedia. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/abnormally-thickened-endometrium-differential-diagnosis Accessed on March 3, 2016.
- Quick CM, Laury AR, Monte NM, Mutter GL (November 2012). "Utility of PAX2 as a marker for diagnosis of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138 (5): 678–84. doi:10.1309/AJCP8OMLT7KDWLMF. PMID 23086768.
- Mutter GL, Baak JP, Crum CP, Richart RM, Ferenczy A, Faquin WC (March 2000). "Endometrial precancer diagnosis by histopathology, clonal analysis, and computerized morphometry". J. Pathol. 190 (4): 462–9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(200003)190:4<462::AID-PATH590>3.0.CO;2-D. PMID 10699996.
- Allison KH, Upson K, Reed SD, Jordan CD, Newton KM, Doherty J, Swisher EM, Garcia RL (March 2012). "PAX2 loss by immunohistochemistry occurs early and often in endometrial hyperplasia". Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol. 31 (2): 151–159. doi:10.1097/PGP.0b013e318226b376. PMC 4646427. PMID 22317873.
- Laas E, Ballester M, Cortez A, Gonin J, Daraï E, Graesslin O (May 2014). "Supervised clustering of immunohistochemical markers to distinguish atypical endometrial hyperplasia from grade 1 endometrial cancer". Gynecol. Oncol. 133 (2): 205–10. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.02.018. PMID 24556060.