Difference between revisions of "Vision loss"

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(Causes in Alphabetical Order)
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'''For patient information, click [[Vision loss (patient information)|here]]'''
 
'''For patient information, click [[Vision loss (patient information)|here]]'''
 
{{SI}}
 
{{SI}}
{{CMG}} {{AE}} {{JC}}
+
{{CMG}} {{AE}} {{JC}} {{AE}} {{LRO}}
  
 
{{SK}} Visual loss
 
{{SK}} Visual loss
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{|style="width:80%; height:100px" border="1"
 
{|style="width:80%; height:100px" border="1"
 
|style="height:100px"; style="width:25%" border="1" bgcolor="LightSteelBlue" |'''Cardiovascular'''
 
|style="height:100px"; style="width:25%" border="1" bgcolor="LightSteelBlue" |'''Cardiovascular'''
|style="height:100px"; style="width:75%" border="1" bgcolor="Beige" | No underlying causes
+
|style="height:100px"; style="width:75%" border="1" bgcolor="Beige" | [[Al amyloidosis]],  [[Arachnoiditis]],  [[Arteriovenous malformation]],  [[Atherosclerosis]],  [[Basilar artery insufficiency syndrome]],  [[Basilar artery migraine ]],  [[Cardiomyopathy]],  [[Carotid atherosclerosis]],  [[Carotid-cavernous fistula]],  [[Central retinal artery occlusion]],  [[Central retinal vein occlusion]],  [[Central serous chorioretinopathy]],  [[Cerebrovascular accident]],  [[Charge syndrome]],  [[Giant cell arteritis]],  [[Hurler syndrome]],  [[Hypertension of pregnancy]],  [[Ischemic optic neuropathy]],  [[Malignant hypertension]],  [[Microvascular diabetes complications]],  [[Microvascular disease]],  [[Ocular ischemic syndrome]],  [[Retinal artery occlusion]],  [[Retinal vein occlusion ]],  [[Stroke]],  [[Takayasu arteritis]],  [[Temporal arteritis]],  [[Transient ischaemic attack]],  [[Vascular diseases]],  [[Vascular retinopathies]],  [[Vasculitis ]],  [[Vertebral artery dissection]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"| '''Chemical/Poisoning'''
 
|bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"| '''Chemical/Poisoning'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Aminosalicylic acid]],  [[Capreomycin sulfate]],  [[Herbal agent overdose ]],  [[Irinotecan hydrochloride]],  [[Mayapple poisoning ]],  [[Monosodium methanarsenate ]],  [[O'higgins disease ]],  [[Radium chloride]],  [[Strontium chloride]],  [[Valganciclovir hydrochloride]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Dental'''
 
| '''Dental'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Oligodontia]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Dermatologic'''
 
| '''Dermatologic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Albinism]],  [[Alezzandrini syndrome ]],  [[Behcet's disease]],  [[Cross syndrome]],  [[Ectodermal dysplasia ]],  [[Keratitis]],  [[Keratomalacia]],  [[Mucous membrane pemphigoid]],  [[Oculocutaneous albinism]],  [[Pachydermoperiostosis]],  [[Panuveitis ]],  [[Pigmentary retinopathy ]],  [[Rufous oculocutaneous albinism ]],  [[Shingles]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Drug Side Effect'''
 
| '''Drug Side Effect'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Amitriptyline]],  [[Carbachol]],  [[Carbamazepine]],  [[Celecoxib]],  [[Cesium]],  [[Chalazion]],  [[Chlorpheniramine]],  [[Cinnarizine]],  [[Clomifene]],  [[Coenzyme q - cytochrome c reductase]],  [[Deferoxamine]],  [[Desipramine]],  [[Diphenhydramine]],  [[Dothiepin]],  [[Hydroxyzine]],  [[Ivabradine]],  [[Lithium]],  [[Mefloquine]],  [[Methanol]],  [[Monosodium methanarsenate ]],  [[Monosodium methyl arsenate]],  [[Morpholine ]],  [[Nortriptyline]],  [[Phenylbutazone]],  [[Physostigmine]],  [[Pipecolic acidemia]],  [[Prochlorperazine]],  [[Pterygium]],  [[Quinidine]],  [[Rofecoxib]],  [[Sclerostin]],  [[Septum pellucidum]],  [[Temozolomide]],  [[Thalidomide]],  [[Verteporfin]],  [[Vigabatrin]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
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|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Endocrine'''
 
| '''Endocrine'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Albinism]],  [[Ceroid lipofuscinosis]],  [[Citrullinemia ]],  [[Empty sella syndrome ]],  [[Graves ophthalmopathy]],  [[Infantile refsum disease]],  [[Kallmann syndrome]],  [[Linear iga bullous dermatosis]],  [[Mucopolysaccharidosis]],  [[Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue]],  [[Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 ]],  [[Nelson syndrome]],  [[Niemann-pick disease]],  [[Nyssen-van bogaert syndrome ]],  [[Pellagra-like syndrome]],  [[Pituitary adenoma]],  [[Thyroid eye disease ]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Environmental'''
 
| '''Environmental'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Foreign body]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Gastroenterologic'''
 
| '''Gastroenterologic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Diabetic ketoacidosis]],  [[Herpetic keratitis ]],  [[Hurler syndrome]],  [[Mucormycosis ]],  [[Sandhoff disease]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Genetic'''
 
| '''Genetic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[13q deletion syndrome]],  [[3 alpha methylglutaconicaciduria]],  [[Alström syndrome]],  [[Amaurosis congenita of leber ]],  [[Amelogenesis imperfecta]],  [[Ampola syndrome ]],  [[Bardet-biedl syndrome]],  [[Blue cone monochromatism ]],  [[Cassia stocco dos santos syndrome]],  [[Cenani lenz syndactylism]],  [[Charcot-marie-tooth syndrome]],  [[Chromosome 11, deletion 11p ]],  [[Chromosome 13, partial monosomy 13q ]],  [[Chromosome 13q deletion syndrome ]],  [[Chromosome 13q deletion ]],  [[Chromosome 14q, partial deletion ]],  [[Chromosome 17, deletion 17q23 q24 ]],  [[Chromosome 2p deletion syndrome ]],  [[Classic childhood ald ]],  [[Cohen syndrome]],  [[Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1g ]],  [[Cross syndrome]],  [[Deletion 11p ]],  [[Deletion 13q ]],  [[Didmoad syndrome]],  [[Ehlers-danlos syndrome ]],  [[Emanuel syndrome ]],  [[Familial amyloid polyneuropathy]],  [[Familial infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy]],  [[Franceschetti-klein syndrome ]],  [[Francois dyscephalic syndrome ]],  [[Goldberg–shprintzen syndrome]],  [[Gronblad-strandberg-touraine syndrome]],  [[Gustavson syndrome ]],  [[Hallervorden-spatz syndrome ]],  [[Hand-schuller-christian syndrome]],  [[Hereditary diseases]],  [[Herns syndrome ]],  [[Imidazole syndrome]],  [[Incontinentia pigmenti]],  [[Infant cytomegalic virus ]],  [[Juvenile retinoschisis ]],  [[Kearns–sayre syndrome]],  [[Krause-kivlin syndrome]],  [[Lawrence-moon syndrome]],  [[Leber's congenital amaurosis]],  [[Lobstein disease]],  [[Mercaptolactace-cysteine disulfiduria]],  [[Neuroaxonal dystrophy]],  [[Noble-bass-sherman syndrome ]],  [[Norrie syndrome ]],  [[Oguchi disease ]],  [[Osteochondrodysplatic dwarfism]],  [[Partial monosomy 13q]],  [[Plum syndrome ]],  [[Polychondritis ]],  [[Pseudoxanthoma elasticum]],  [[Purtscher's retinopathy]],  [[Pyle disease ]],  [[Rieger syndrome ]],  [[Roberts syndrome]],  [[Roy-maroteaux-kremp syndrome ]],  [[Schindler disease]],  [[Sialidosis]],  [[Simell-takki syndrome]],  [[Singh-chhaparwal-dhanda syndrome]],  [[Small syndrome ]],  [[Smith martin dodd syndrome]],  [[Spherophakia-brachymorphia syndrome]],  [[Stargardt disease]],  [[Stevens-johnson syndrome]],  [[Stickler syndrome]],  [[Syndactyly]],  [[Tapetal-like reflex ]],  [[Tay-sachs disease]],  [[Treacher collins syndrome]],  [[Usher syndrome]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Hematologic'''
 
| '''Hematologic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Aspartoacylase deficiency]],  [[Avitaminosis]],  [[Brain aneurysm]],  [[Canavan leukodystrophy ]],  [[Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome]],  [[Cree leukoencephalopathy ]],  [[Diabetes insipidus]],  [[Ebola ]],  [[Familial infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy]],  [[Galactokinase deficiency]],  [[Homonymous hemianopia]],  [[Hypoglycaemia]],  [[Intraocular hemorrhage]],  [[Krabbe leukodystrophy]],  [[Langerhans cell histiocytosis]],  [[Leukodystrophy]],  [[Lymphoma]],  [[Metachromatic leukodystrophy]],  [[Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation]],  [[Ornithine translocase deficiency]],  [[Posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome]],  [[Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy]],  [[Sickle cell anemia]],  [[Subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis ]],  [[Transthyretin amyloidosis ]],  [[Vitamin a deficiency]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
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|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Infectious Disease'''
 
| '''Infectious Disease'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Acanthamoeba]],  [[Achromatopsia]],  [[Acromegaloid]],  [[Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis]],  [[Acute retinal necrosis]],  [[Alveolar hydatid disease]],  [[Blepharitis]],  [[Congenital cytomegalovirus infection]],  [[Congenital rubella syndrome]],  [[Congenital toxoplasmosis]],  [[Creutzfeldt jakob disease]],  [[Cytomegalovirus retinitis ]],  [[Cytomegalovirus ]],  [[Ebola ]],  [[Euphorbiaceae]],  [[Feline spongiform encephalopathy ]],  [[Fundus albipunctatus]],  [[Giant cell arteritis]],  [[Helminth infections ]],  [[Herpes simplex]],  [[Hiv]],  [[Infant cytomegalic virus ]],  [[Inflammatory processes]],  [[Mucormycosis ]],  [[Multifocal choroiditis]],  [[Mycosis fungoides]],  [[Ocular herpes ]],  [[Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome ]],  [[Panuveitis ]],  [[Papillitis]],  [[Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome]],  [[Rhabditida]],  [[Rhinocerebral mucormycosis ]],  [[Rhinocerebral zygomycosis ]],  [[Rhino-orbito-cerebral phycomycosis ]],  [[Rift valley fever]],  [[Secernentea]],  [[Shingles]],  [[Syphilis]],  [[Toxoplasmosis]],  [[Uveitis]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic'''
 
| '''Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Cardiomyopathy]],  [[Cartilaginous]],  [[Ciliary muscle spasm]],  [[Cycloplegia]],  [[Dysosteosclerosis ]],  [[Episodic ataxia]],  [[Neuropathic ataxia ]],  [[Osteoporosis ]],  [[Posterior column ataxia ]],  [[Rhabdomyosarcoma]],  [[Spastic tetraplegic ]],  [[Spinocerebellar ataxia]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Neurologic'''
 
| '''Neurologic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis]],  [[Alpers' disease]],  [[Amaurosis fugax]],  [[Anencephaly ]],  [[Arachnoiditis]],  [[Basilar artery migraine ]],  [[Batten disease]],  [[Bessman-baldwin syndrome ]],  [[Bilateral occipital lobe infarct]],  [[Bilateral optic neuritis]],  [[Bilateral papilloedema]],  [[Bonnet-dechaume-blanc syndrome]],  [[Brain aneurysm]],  [[Brain tumors]],  [[Cerebral palsy]],  [[Ceroid lipofuscinosis]],  [[Charcot-marie-tooth syndrome]],  [[Cluster headache]],  [[Concussion]],  [[Conversion disorder]],  [[Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia ]],  [[Craniometaphyseal dysplasia]],  [[Craniosynostosis ]],  [[Craniotelencephalic dysplasia ]],  [[Creutzfeldt jakob disease]],  [[Devic disease ]],  [[Empty sella syndrome ]],  [[Encephalocele anterior ]],  [[Encephalocele frontal ]],  [[Encephalocele]],  [[Endophthalmitis]],  [[Episodic ataxia]],  [[Esthesioneuroblastoma ]],  [[Fahr's syndrome]],  [[Familial amyloid polyneuropathy]],  [[Feline spongiform encephalopathy ]],  [[Flynn-aird syndrome ]],  [[Ghose-sachdev-kumar syndrome ]],  [[Heidenhain syndrome ]],  [[Hydranencephaly ]],  [[Hydrocephalus ]],  [[Increased intracranial pressure]],  [[Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy]],  [[Ischemic optic neuropathy]],  [[Jensen syndrome ]],  [[Lethal congenital contracture syndrome]],  [[Lowe oculocerebrorenal syndrome ]],  [[Microcephaly ]],  [[Midline craniofacial anomalies ]],  [[Migraine]],  [[Minamata disease]],  [[Mitochondrial disease ]],  [[Morning glory disc anomaly]],  [[Multiple lentigines syndrome]],  [[Multiple sclerosis ]],  [[Neuroaxonal dystrophy]],  [[Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation]],  [[Neurodegenerative syndrome]],  [[Neurofibromatosis]],  [[Neuromyelitis optica]],  [[Neuropathic ataxia ]],  [[Neuropathy ]],  [[Niemann-pick disease]],  [[Night blindness]],  [[Oculocerebrorenal syndrome]],  [[Olivopontocerebellar atrophy ]],  [[Ophthalmoplegia]],  [[Optic nerve compression]],  [[Optic nerve disorder]],  [[Optic neuritis]],  [[Optic pathway glioma ]],  [[Opticoacoustic nerve atrophy dementia ]],  [[Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration ]],  [[Papilledema]],  [[Papilloedema]],  [[Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration]],  [[Peripheral type neurofibromatosis ]],  [[Photopsia]],  [[Posterior column ataxia ]],  [[Progressive supranuclear palsy]],  [[Pseudotumor cerebri]],  [[Retinal migraine ]],  [[Rhinocerebral mucormycosis ]],  [[Rhinocerebral zygomycosis ]],  [[Rhino-orbito-cerebral phycomycosis ]],  [[Rift valley fever]],  [[Senior-loken syndrome ]],  [[Spastic tetraplegic ]],  [[Spinocerebellar ataxia]],  [[Subacute myelo-optic neuropathy]],  [[Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis]],  [[Sudanophilic cerebral sclerosis]],  [[Tay-sachs disease]],  [[Temporal arteritis]],  [[Tolosa-hunt syndrome]],  [[Treacher collins syndrome]],  [[Vertebral artery dissection]],  [[Visual hallucinations]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Nutritional/Metabolic'''
 
| '''Nutritional/Metabolic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Avitaminosis]],  [[Blue diaper syndrome]],  [[Diabetes insipidus]],  [[Diabetic eye disease ]],  [[Diabetic ketoacidosis]],  [[Diabetic retinopathy ]],  [[Gangliosidosis ]],  [[Hypoglycaemia]],  [[Imidazole syndrome]],  [[Microvascular diabetes complications]],  [[Mucolipidosis]],  [[Nutritional deficiencies]],  [[Osteoporosis ]],  [[Pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency ]],  [[Pyruvate decarboxylase]],  [[Schindler disease]],  [[Sclerosteosis ]],  [[Senter syndrome ]],  [[Sialidosis]],  [[Vitamin a deficiency]],
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Obstetric/Gynecologic'''
 
| '''Obstetric/Gynecologic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Hypertension of pregnancy]],  [[Pre-eclampsia]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Oncologic'''
 
| '''Oncologic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Brain tumors]],  [[Car syndrome ]],  [[Eye cancer]],  [[Eye melanoma ]],  [[Glioblastoma ]],  [[Intraocular melanoma]],  [[Langerhans cell histiocytosis]],  [[Lymphoma]],  [[Melanoma of the choroid ]],  [[Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 ]],  [[Nasopharyngeal carcinoma]],  [[Nasopharynx cancer ]],  [[Occipital lobe tumours]],  [[Ocular oncology]],  [[Orbit tumour ]],  [[Orbital lymphangioma ]],  [[Orbital mass]],  [[Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration]],  [[Phacolytic glaucoma ]],  [[Pituitary adenoma]],  [[Pseudotumor cerebri]],  [[Retinoblastoma ]],  [[Rhabdomyosarcoma]],  [[Trachoma ]],  [[Uveal melanoma]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Ophthalmologic'''
 
| '''Ophthalmologic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy]],  [[Acute retinal necrosis]],  [[Age-related macular degeneration]],  [[Amaurosis fugax]],  [[Amblyopia]],  [[Angioid streaks ]],  [[Aniridia ]],  [[Anisometropia ]],  [[Anophthalmia]],  [[Anophthalmos]],  [[Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis]],  [[Arteriovenous malformation]],  [[Asthenopia ]],  [[Autoimmune uveitis ]],  [[Axenfeld-rieger syndrome]],  [[Basement membrane corneal dystrophy]],  [[Benign essential blepharospasm]],  [[Bessman-baldwin syndrome ]],  [[Best vitelliform macular dystrophy]],  [[Best's disease]],  [[Bilateral occipital lobe infarct]],  [[Bilateral optic neuritis]],  [[Blepharitis]],  [[Blind spot]],  [[Blindness]],  [[Bothnia retina dystrophy]],  [[Calcification of basal ganglia ]],  [[Carotid-cavernous fistula]],  [[Cataract]],  [[Central retinal artery occlusion]],  [[Central retinal vein occlusion]],  [[Central serous chorioretinopathy]],  [[Chandler's syndrome]],  [[Chorioretinitis ]],  [[Choroideremia ]],  [[Choroiditis ]],  [[Cloudy cornea (patient information)]],  [[Cogan-reese syndrome ]],  [[Cogan's syndrome ]],  [[Coloboma]],  [[Color blindness]],  [[Cone dystrophy ]],  [[Cone rod dystrophy ]],  [[Congenital x-linked retinoschisis ]],  [[Conversion disorder]],  [[Cornea plana 1]],  [[Corneal dystrophy]],  [[Corneal foreign body]],  [[Corneal hypesthesia ]],  [[Corneal opacity]],  [[Corneal ulcer ]],  [[Cortical blindness]],  [[Cortical hyperostosis]],  [[Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia ]],  [[Cycloplegia]],  [[Cystoid macular dystrophy]],  [[Cytomegalovirus retinitis ]],  [[Dermatoosteolysis]],  [[Devic disease ]],  [[Diabetic eye disease ]],  [[Diabetic retinopathy ]],  [[Dry eye]],  [[Eales disease]],  [[Endophthalmitis]],  [[Enhanced s-cone syndrome ]],  [[Essential iris atrophy]],  [[Eye cancer]],  [[Eye injury]],  [[Eye melanoma ]],  [[Fuchs atrophia gyrata chorioideae et retinae ]],  [[Fuchs' dystrophy]],  [[Glaucoma]],  [[Hemianopia ]],  [[Hyperopia]],  [[Hyperornithinemia ]],  [[Hyphema]],  [[Infantile cortical hyperostosis]],  [[Intraocular hemorrhage]],  [[Intraocular melanoma]],  [[Intraocular pressure]],  [[Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome]],  [[Iridocyclitis]],  [[Iridogoniodysgenesis]],  [[Lattice corneal dystrophy ]],  [[Leber's congenital amaurosis]],  [[Leber's optic atrophy]],  [[Lens pathology]],  [[Lowe oculocerebrorenal syndrome ]],  [[Macular degeneration]],  [[Macular dystrophy]],  [[Macular edema]],  [[Macular hole]],  [[Maculopathy]],  [[Malignant hypertension]],  [[Marsden syndrome ]],  [[Marshall syndrome]],  [[Melanoma of the choroid ]],  [[Metamorphopsia]],  [[Metaphyseal dysplasia]],  [[Microphthalmia]],  [[Microphthalmos]],  [[Morning glory disc anomaly]],  [[Multifocal choroiditis]],  [[Neuromyelitis optica]],  [[Night blindness]],  [[Nutritional amblyopia]],  [[Obal syndrome]],  [[Occipital lobe tumours]],  [[Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid ]],  [[Ocular herpes ]],  [[Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome ]],  [[Ocular ischemic syndrome]],  [[Ocular oncology]],  [[Ocular trauma]],  [[Oculocerebrorenal syndrome]],  [[Oculocutaneous albinism]],  [[Oguchi disease ]],  [[Oligodontia]],  [[Olivopontocerebellar atrophy ]],  [[Open-angle glaucoma]],  [[Ophthalmia neonatorum]],  [[Ophthalmoplegia]],  [[Optic atrophy]],  [[Optic nerve compression]],  [[Optic nerve disorder]],  [[Optic neuritis]],  [[Optic pathway glioma ]],  [[Opticoacoustic nerve atrophy dementia ]],  [[Orbit tumour ]],  [[Orbital lymphangioma ]],  [[Orbital mass]],  [[Osteochondrodysplatic dwarfism]],  [[Papillitis]],  [[Periorbital cellulitis]],  [[Photopsia]],  [[Pigmentary retinopathy ]],  [[Posterior vitreous detachment ]],  [[Presbyopia ]],  [[Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome]],  [[Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy]],  [[Protanopia ]],  [[Purtscher's retinopathy]],  [[Raised intraocular pressure]],  [[Ramos-arroyo syndrome ]],  [[Reese-ellsworth syndrome ]],  [[Refractive error]],  [[Refsum disease ]],  [[Retinal artery occlusion]],  [[Retinal cone dystrophy ]],  [[Retinal degeneration ]],  [[Retinal detachment]],  [[Retinal dysplasia]],  [[Retinal migraine ]],  [[Retinal tear ]],  [[Retinal vein occlusion ]],  [[Retinitis pigmentosa]],  [[Retinitis punctata albescens ]],  [[Retinoblastoma ]],  [[Retinopathy]],  [[Retinoschisis ]],  [[Retrolental fibroplasia]],  [[Rollet syndrome ]],  [[Rufous oculocutaneous albinism ]],  [[Scleritis]],  [[Senile macular degeneration]],  [[Senile retinoschisis]],  [[Senior-loken syndrome ]],  [[Septo-optic dysplasia]],  [[Simell-takki syndrome]],  [[Singh-chhaparwal-dhanda syndrome]],  [[Small syndrome ]],  [[Smith martin dodd syndrome]],  [[Spherophakia-brachymorphia syndrome]],  [[Stargardt disease]],  [[Stevens-johnson syndrome]],  [[Stickler syndrome]],  [[Subacute combined degeneration of the cord]],  [[Subacute myelo-optic neuropathy]],  [[Subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis ]],  [[Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis]],  [[Superior orbital fissure]],  [[Thyroid eye disease ]],  [[Usher syndrome]],  [[Uveal diseases]],  [[Uveal melanoma]],  [[Uveitis]],  [[Vascular diseases]],  [[Vascular retinopathies]],  [[Vasculitis ]],  [[Vasterbotten dystrophy ]],  [[Verloes van maldergem marneffe syndrome ]],  [[Vision impairment ]],  [[Visual hallucinations]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
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|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Psychiatric'''
 
| '''Psychiatric'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Hysteria]],  [[Mental retardation ]],  [[Psychogenic]],  [[Shaken baby syndrome]],
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Pulmonary'''
 
| '''Pulmonary'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Alveolar hydatid disease]],  [[Sarcoidosis]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Renal/Electrolyte'''
 
| '''Renal/Electrolyte'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Alport syndrome]],  [[Hypophosphatemia]],  [[Renal tubulopathy ]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy'''
 
| '''Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Al amyloidosis]],  [[Behcet's disease]],  [[Besnier-boeck-schaumann disease ]],  [[Inflammatory processes]],  [[Leprosy]],  [[Mucous membrane pemphigoid]],  [[Sarcoidosis]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Sexual'''
 
| '''Sexual'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Herpes simplex]],  [[Hiv]],  [[Syphilis]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Trauma'''
 
| '''Trauma'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Concussion]],  [[Eye injury]],  [[Head injury ]],  [[Ocular trauma]],  [[Retinal tear ]],  [[Superior orbital fissure]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
| '''Urologic'''
 
| '''Urologic'''
|bgcolor="Beige"| No underlying causes
+
|bgcolor="Beige"| [[Hypophosphatemia]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
 
|-bgcolor="LightSteelBlue"
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===Causes in Alphabetical Order===
 
===Causes in Alphabetical Order===
{{columns-list|3|
+
{{columns-list|
 +
*[[13q deletion syndrome]]
 
*[[2-hydroxyglutaricaciduria]]
 
*[[2-hydroxyglutaricaciduria]]
*[[3-Methylglutaconic aciduria|3 alpha methylglutaconicaciduria, type 3]]
+
*[[3 alpha methylglutaconicaciduria]]
*[[Septum pellucidum|Absence of septum pellucidum with porencephalia syndrome]]
+
*[[3-methylglutaconic aciduria]]
*[[Acanthamoeba|Acanthamoeba infection of the eye]]
+
*[[Acanthamoeba]]
*[[Eye injury|Accidental eye injury]]
+
*[[Achromatopsia]]
*[[Achromatopsia|Achromatopsia incomplete, x-linked]]
+
*[[Acromegaloid]]
*[[Pachydermoperiostosis]]
 
 
*[[Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis]]
 
*[[Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis]]
*[[Maculopathy|Acute maculopathy]]
 
 
*[[Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy]]
 
*[[Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy]]
*[[Acute retinal necrosis|Acute retinal necrosis syndrome]]
+
*[[Acute retinal necrosis]]
 
*[[Age-related macular degeneration]]
 
*[[Age-related macular degeneration]]
 +
*[[Al amyloidosis]]
 
*[[Albinism]]
 
*[[Albinism]]
*[[Alezzandrini syndrome]]  
+
*[[Alezzandrini syndrome ]]
*[[Alpers' disease|Alpers syndrome]]
+
*[[Alpers' disease]]
 
*[[Alport syndrome]]
 
*[[Alport syndrome]]
 
*[[Alström syndrome]]
 
*[[Alström syndrome]]
 
*[[Alveolar hydatid disease]]
 
*[[Alveolar hydatid disease]]
 +
*[[Amaurosis congenita of leber ]]
 
*[[Amaurosis fugax]]
 
*[[Amaurosis fugax]]
 
*[[Amblyopia]]
 
*[[Amblyopia]]
 +
*[[Amelogenesis imperfecta]]
 
*[[Amitriptyline]]
 
*[[Amitriptyline]]
*[[Amelogenesis imperfecta]]
+
*[[Ampola syndrome ]]
*[[Mercaptolactace-cysteine disulfiduria|Ampola syndrome]]
+
*[[Anencephaly ]]
*[[Anencephaly]]
+
*[[Angioid streaks ]]
*[[Angioid streaks]]
+
*[[Aniridia ]]
*[[Aniridia]]
+
*[[Anisometropia ]]
*[[Anisometropia]]  
+
*[[Anophthalmia]]
 +
*[[Anophthalmos]]
 
*[[Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis]]
 
*[[Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis]]
 
*[[Arachnoiditis]]
 
*[[Arachnoiditis]]
 
*[[Arteriovenous malformation]]
 
*[[Arteriovenous malformation]]
 
*[[Aspartoacylase deficiency]]
 
*[[Aspartoacylase deficiency]]
*[[Asthenopia]]
+
*[[Asthenopia ]]
 +
*[[Atherosclerosis]]
 +
*[[Autoimmune uveitis ]]
 
*[[Avitaminosis]]
 
*[[Avitaminosis]]
*[[Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome|Axenfeld-rieger syndrome]]
+
*[[Axenfeld-rieger syndrome]]
*[[Bardet-Biedl syndrome|Bardet-biedl syndrome]]
+
*[[Bardet-biedl syndrome]]
 
*[[Basement membrane corneal dystrophy]]
 
*[[Basement membrane corneal dystrophy]]
 
*[[Basilar artery insufficiency syndrome]]
 
*[[Basilar artery insufficiency syndrome]]
 +
*[[Basilar artery migraine ]]
 
*[[Batten disease]]
 
*[[Batten disease]]
 
*[[Behcet's disease]]
 
*[[Behcet's disease]]
 
*[[Benign essential blepharospasm]]
 
*[[Benign essential blepharospasm]]
*[[Sarcoidosis|Besnier-boeck-schaumann disease]]  
+
*[[Besnier-boeck-schaumann disease ]]
*[[Imidazole syndrome|Bessman-baldwin syndrome]]
+
*[[Bessman-baldwin syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Best vitelliform macular dystrophy]]
 
*[[Best's disease]]
 
*[[Best's disease]]
*[[Cortical blindness|Bilateral occipital lobe infarct]]
+
*[[Bilateral occipital lobe infarct]]
*[[Optic neuritis|Bilateral optic neuritis]]
+
*[[Bilateral optic neuritis]]
*[[Papilloedema|Bilateral papilloedema]]
+
*[[Bilateral papilloedema]]
 
*[[Blepharitis]]
 
*[[Blepharitis]]
 
*[[Blind spot]]
 
*[[Blind spot]]
 
*[[Blindness]]
 
*[[Blindness]]
*[[Blue cone monochromatism]]
+
*[[Blue cone monochromatism ]]
 
*[[Blue diaper syndrome]]
 
*[[Blue diaper syndrome]]
 
*[[Blue-ringed octopus poisoning]]
 
*[[Blue-ringed octopus poisoning]]
 +
*[[Bonnet-dechaume-blanc syndrome]]
 
*[[Bothnia retina dystrophy]]
 
*[[Bothnia retina dystrophy]]
 
*[[Brain aneurysm]]
 
*[[Brain aneurysm]]
 
*[[Brain tumors]]
 
*[[Brain tumors]]
*[[Fahr's syndrome|Basal ganglia calcification]]
+
*[[Calcification of basal ganglia ]]
*[[Canavan leukodystrophy]]
+
*[[Canavan leukodystrophy ]]
*[[Carbachol]]  
+
*[[Car syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Carbachol]]
 
*[[Carbamazepine]]
 
*[[Carbamazepine]]
*[[Cassia Stocco dos Santos syndrome]]  
+
*[[Cardiomyopathy]]
*[[Atherosclerosis|Carotid atherosclerosis]]
+
*[[Carotid atherosclerosis]]
 
*[[Carotid-cavernous fistula]]
 
*[[Carotid-cavernous fistula]]
 +
*[[Cartilaginous]]
 +
*[[Cassia stocco dos santos syndrome]]
 
*[[Cataract]]
 
*[[Cataract]]
 
*[[Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome]]
 
*[[Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome]]
 
*[[Celecoxib]]
 
*[[Celecoxib]]
 +
*[[Cenani lenz syndactylism]]
 +
*[[Central retinal artery occlusion]]
 
*[[Central retinal vein occlusion]]
 
*[[Central retinal vein occlusion]]
 
*[[Central serous chorioretinopathy]]
 
*[[Central serous chorioretinopathy]]
 +
*[[Cerebral palsy]]
 
*[[Cerebrovascular accident]]
 
*[[Cerebrovascular accident]]
*[[Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 1, infantile]]
+
*[[Ceroid lipofuscinosis]]
 +
*[[Cesium]]
 
*[[Chalazion]]
 
*[[Chalazion]]
*[[Chandler's syndrome]]  
+
*[[Chandler's syndrome]]
*[[Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome|Charcot-marie-tooth disease, x-linked recessive]]
+
*[[Charcot-marie-tooth syndrome]]
*[[CHARGE syndrome]]
+
*[[Charge syndrome]]
*[[Cesium]]
+
*[[Chemical adverse reaction]]
 +
*[[Chemical burn ]]
 
*[[Chlorpheniramine]]
 
*[[Chlorpheniramine]]
*[[Chorioretinitis]]
+
*[[Chorioretinitis ]]
*[[Choroideremia]]
+
*[[Choroideremia ]]
*[[Choroiditis]]  
+
*[[Choroiditis ]]
*[[Chromosome 11 (human)|Chromosome 11, deletion 11p]]
+
*[[Chromosome 11, deletion 11p ]]
*[[13q deletion syndrome|Chromosome 13q deletion syndrome]]
+
*[[Chromosome 13, partial monosomy 13q ]]
*[[Chromosome 14 (human)|Chromosome 14q, partial deletion]]
+
*[[Chromosome 13q deletion syndrome ]]
*[[Chromosome 17 (human)|Chromosome 17, deletion 17q23 q24]]
+
*[[Chromosome 13q deletion ]]
*[[Chromosome 2 (human)|Chromosome 2p deletion syndrome]]
+
*[[Chromosome 14q, partial deletion ]]
*[[Ciliary muscle]]
+
*[[Chromosome 17, deletion 17q23 q24 ]]
 +
*[[Chromosome 2p deletion syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Ciliary muscle spasm]]
 
*[[Cinnarizine]]
 
*[[Cinnarizine]]
*[[Citrullinemia]]
+
*[[Citrullinemia ]]
 +
*[[Classic childhood ald ]]
 
*[[Clomifene]]
 
*[[Clomifene]]
 +
*[[Cloudy cornea (patient information)]]
 
*[[Cluster headache]]
 
*[[Cluster headache]]
*[[Cobra poisoning]]
+
*[[Cobra poisoning ]]
*[[Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase|Coenzyme q cytochrome c reductase deficiency]]
+
*[[Coenzyme q - cytochrome c reductase]]
*[[Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome|Cogan-reese syndrome]]
+
*[[Cogan-reese syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Cogan's syndrome ]]
 
*[[Cohen syndrome]]
 
*[[Cohen syndrome]]
*[[Coloboma]]  
+
*[[Coloboma]]
*[[Color blindness|Colour vision impairment]]
+
*[[Color blindness]]
 
*[[Concussion]]
 
*[[Concussion]]
*[[Cone dystrophy]]
+
*[[Cone dystrophy ]]
 +
*[[Cone rod dystrophy ]]
 +
*[[Congenital cytomegalovirus infection]]
 +
*[[Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1g ]]
 +
*[[Congenital rubella syndrome]]
 
*[[Congenital toxoplasmosis]]
 
*[[Congenital toxoplasmosis]]
*[[Conversion disorder]]  
+
*[[Congenital x-linked retinoschisis ]]
 +
*[[Conversion disorder]]
 
*[[Cornea plana 1]]
 
*[[Cornea plana 1]]
*[[Corneal dystrophy]]  
+
*[[Corneal dystrophy]]
*[[Cloudy cornea (patient information)|Corneal edema]]
+
*[[Corneal foreign body]]
*[[Krause-Kivlin syndrome|Corneal opacity]]
+
*[[Corneal hypesthesia ]]
*[[Corneal ulcer]]
+
*[[Corneal opacity]]
 +
*[[Corneal ulcer ]]
 
*[[Cortical blindness]]
 
*[[Cortical blindness]]
*[[Infantile cortical hyperostosis|Cortical hyperostosis-syndactyly]]
+
*[[Cortical hyperostosis]]
*[[Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia]]
+
*[[Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia ]]
 
*[[Craniometaphyseal dysplasia]]
 
*[[Craniometaphyseal dysplasia]]
*[[Cree leukoencephalopathy]]
+
*[[Craniosynostosis ]]
*[[Creutzfeldt Jakob disease]]
+
*[[Craniotelencephalic dysplasia ]]
 +
*[[Cree leukoencephalopathy ]]
 +
*[[Creutzfeldt jakob disease]]
 +
*[[Cross syndrome]]
 
*[[Cycloplegia]]
 
*[[Cycloplegia]]
*[[Macular edema|Cystoid macular dystrophy]]
+
*[[Cystoid macular dystrophy]]
*[[Cytomegalovirus retinitis]]
+
*[[Cytomegalovirus retinitis ]]
*[[Daphne poisoning]]
+
*[[Cytomegalovirus ]]
*[[Deferoxamine|Desferrioxamine toxicity]]  
+
*[[Daphne poisoning ]]
 +
*[[Deferoxamine]]
 +
*[[Deletion 11p ]]
 +
*[[Deletion 13q ]]
 +
*[[Dermatoosteolysis]]
 +
*[[Desferrioxamine toxicity ]]
 
*[[Desipramine]]
 
*[[Desipramine]]
*[[Devic's disease]]
+
*[[Devic disease ]]
*[[Diabetic retinopathy|Diabetic eye disease]]
+
*[[Diabetes insipidus]]
*[[Diabetic ketoacidosis]]  
+
*[[Diabetic eye disease ]]
*[[Diabetic retinopathy]]
+
*[[Diabetic ketoacidosis]]
*[[Wolfram syndrome|DIDMOAD syndrome]]
+
*[[Diabetic retinopathy ]]
 +
*[[Didmoad syndrome]]
 
*[[Diphenhydramine]]
 
*[[Diphenhydramine]]
 
*[[Dothiepin]]
 
*[[Dothiepin]]
 +
*[[Drugs]]
 
*[[Dry eye]]
 
*[[Dry eye]]
 +
*[[Dysosteosclerosis ]]
 
*[[Eales disease]]
 
*[[Eales disease]]
*[[Ebola]]
+
*[[Ebola ]]
*[[Ectodermal dysplasia]]
+
*[[Ectodermal dysplasia ]]
*[[Ehlers-Danlos syndrome|Ehlers-danlos syndrome]]
+
*[[Ehlers-danlos syndrome ]]
*[[Emanuel syndrome]]
+
*[[Emanuel syndrome ]]
*[[Empty sella syndrome]]
+
*[[Empty sella syndrome ]]
 
*[[Encephalocele]]
 
*[[Encephalocele]]
 +
*[[Encephalocele anterior ]]
 +
*[[Encephalocele frontal ]]
 
*[[Endophthalmitis]]
 
*[[Endophthalmitis]]
 +
*[[Enhanced s-cone syndrome ]]
 
*[[Episodic ataxia]]
 
*[[Episodic ataxia]]
*[[Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome|Essential iris atrophy]]
+
*[[Essential iris atrophy]]
*[[Esthesioneuroblastoma]]
+
*[[Esthesioneuroblastoma ]]
 
*[[Euphorbiaceae]]
 
*[[Euphorbiaceae]]
*[[Ocular oncology|Eye cancer]]
+
*[[Eye cancer]]
 
*[[Eye injury]]
 
*[[Eye injury]]
*[[Melanoma of the eye (patient information)|Eye melanoma]]
+
*[[Eye melanoma ]]
*[[Metachromatic leukodystrophy]]
+
*[[Fahr's syndrome]]
*[[Feline spongiform encephalopathy]]
+
*[[Familial amyloid polyneuropathy]]
*[[Minamata disease|Fetal methylmercury syndrome]]
+
*[[Familial infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy]]
*[[Flynn-Aird syndrome]]
+
*[[Feline spongiform encephalopathy ]]
 +
*[[Fetal methylmercury syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Flynn-aird syndrome ]]
 
*[[Foreign body]]
 
*[[Foreign body]]
*[[Treacher Collins syndrome|Franceschetti-klein syndrome]]
+
*[[Franceschetti-klein syndrome ]]
*[[Francois dyscephalic syndrome]]
+
*[[Francois dyscephalic syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Fuchs atrophia gyrata chorioideae et retinae ]]
 
*[[Fuchs' dystrophy]]
 
*[[Fuchs' dystrophy]]
*[[Fundus albipunctatus]]  
+
*[[Fundus albipunctatus]]
 
*[[Galactokinase deficiency]]
 
*[[Galactokinase deficiency]]
 +
*[[Gangliosidosis ]]
 +
*[[Ghose-sachdev-kumar syndrome ]]
 
*[[Giant cell arteritis]]
 
*[[Giant cell arteritis]]
 
*[[Glaucoma]]
 
*[[Glaucoma]]
*[[Glioblastoma]]
+
*[[Glioblastoma ]]
*[[GM1 gangliosidoses|Gm1 gangliosidosis]]
+
*[[Goldberg–shprintzen syndrome]]
*[[GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant|Gm2-gangliosidosis, ab variant]]
+
*[[Graves ophthalmopathy]]
*[[Goldberg–Shprintzen syndrome]]
+
*[[Gronblad-strandberg-touraine syndrome]]
*[[Pseudoxanthoma elasticum|Gronblad-strandberg-touraine syndrome]]
+
*[[Gustavson syndrome ]]
*[[Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration|Hallervorden-spatz syndrome]]
+
*[[Hallervorden-spatz syndrome ]]
*[[Langerhans cell histiocytosis|Hand-schuller-christian syndrome]]
+
*[[Hand-schuller-christian syndrome]]
*[[Head injury]]
+
*[[Head injury ]]
*[[Heidenhain syndrome]]
+
*[[Heidenhain syndrome ]]
*[[Helminth infections]]
+
*[[Helminth infections ]]
*[[Hemianopia]]
+
*[[Hemianopia ]]
*[[Herpes simplex|Neonatal herpes]]
+
*[[Hereditary diseases]]
*[[Herpetic keratitis]]
+
*[[Herns syndrome ]]
*[[HIV]]
+
*[[Herpes]]
 +
*[[Herpes simplex]]
 +
*[[Herpetic keratitis ]]
 +
*[[Hiv]]
 
*[[Homonymous hemianopia]]
 
*[[Homonymous hemianopia]]
*[[Hurler syndrome]]  
+
*[[Hurler syndrome]]
*[[Hydranencephaly]]
+
*[[Hydranencephaly ]]
*[[Hydrocephalus]]
+
*[[Hydrocephalus ]]
 
*[[Hydroxyzine]]
 
*[[Hydroxyzine]]
 
*[[Hyperopia]]
 
*[[Hyperopia]]
*[[Ornithine translocase deficiency|Hyperornithinemia]]  
+
*[[Hyperornithinemia ]]
 
*[[Hypertension of pregnancy]]
 
*[[Hypertension of pregnancy]]
 
*[[Hyphema]]
 
*[[Hyphema]]
Line 406: Line 455:
 
*[[Hypophosphatemia]]
 
*[[Hypophosphatemia]]
 
*[[Hysteria]]
 
*[[Hysteria]]
 +
*[[Imidazole syndrome]]
 
*[[Incontinentia pigmenti]]
 
*[[Incontinentia pigmenti]]
 
*[[Increased intracranial pressure]]
 
*[[Increased intracranial pressure]]
*[[Congenital cytomegalovirus infection|Infant cytomegalic virus]]
+
*[[Infant cytomegalic virus ]]
 +
*[[Infantile cortical hyperostosis]]
 +
*[[Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy]]
 
*[[Infantile refsum disease]]
 
*[[Infantile refsum disease]]
 
*[[Inflammatory processes]]
 
*[[Inflammatory processes]]
 +
*[[Intraocular hemorrhage]]
 
*[[Intraocular melanoma]]
 
*[[Intraocular melanoma]]
 +
*[[Intraocular pressure]]
 +
*[[Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome]]
 
*[[Iridocyclitis]]
 
*[[Iridocyclitis]]
*[[Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type]]
+
*[[Iridogoniodysgenesis]]
 
*[[Ischemic optic neuropathy]]
 
*[[Ischemic optic neuropathy]]
*[[Ivabradine]]  
+
*[[Ivabradine]]
*[[Jensen syndrome]]
+
*[[Jensen syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Juvenile retinoschisis ]]
 
*[[Kallmann syndrome]]
 
*[[Kallmann syndrome]]
*[[Kearns–Sayre syndrome]]
+
*[[Kearns–sayre syndrome]]
 
*[[Keratitis]]
 
*[[Keratitis]]
 
*[[Keratomalacia]]
 
*[[Keratomalacia]]
 
*[[Krabbe leukodystrophy]]
 
*[[Krabbe leukodystrophy]]
 +
*[[Krause-kivlin syndrome]]
 
*[[Langerhans cell histiocytosis]]
 
*[[Langerhans cell histiocytosis]]
*[[Lawrence-Moon syndrome]]
+
*[[Lattice corneal dystrophy ]]
 +
*[[Lawrence-moon syndrome]]
 
*[[Leber's congenital amaurosis]]
 
*[[Leber's congenital amaurosis]]
*[[Lethal congenital contracture syndrome]]
+
*[[Leber's optic atrophy]]
 +
*[[Leg absence ]]
 +
*[[Lens pathology]]
 
*[[Leprosy]]
 
*[[Leprosy]]
 
*[[Lethal congenital contracture syndrome]]
 
*[[Lethal congenital contracture syndrome]]
*[[Linear IgA bullous dermatosis]]
+
*[[Leukodystrophy]]
 +
*[[Linear iga bullous dermatosis]]
 
*[[Lithium]]
 
*[[Lithium]]
 
*[[Lobstein disease]]
 
*[[Lobstein disease]]
*[[Oculocerebrorenal syndrome]]
+
*[[Lord ]]
 +
*[[Lowe oculocerebrorenal syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Lymphoma]]
 
*[[Macular degeneration]]
 
*[[Macular degeneration]]
*[[Macular dystrophy, concentric annular]]
+
*[[Macular dystrophy]]
 +
*[[Macular edema]]
 
*[[Macular hole]]
 
*[[Macular hole]]
 +
*[[Maculopathy]]
 
*[[Malignant hypertension]]
 
*[[Malignant hypertension]]
*[[Marsden syndrome]]
+
*[[Marsden syndrome ]]
 
*[[Marshall syndrome]]
 
*[[Marshall syndrome]]
 
*[[Mefloquine]]
 
*[[Mefloquine]]
*[[Uveal melanoma|Melanoma of the choroid]]
+
*[[Melanoma of the choroid ]]
*[[Mental retardation, hypocupremia, hypobetalipoproteinemia]]
+
*[[Mental retardation ]]
*[[Mental retardation unusual facies ampola type]]
+
*[[Mercaptolactace-cysteine disulfiduria]]
*[[Mental retardation, x-linked, wittwer type]]
 
 
*[[Mercury poisoning]]
 
*[[Mercury poisoning]]
 
*[[Metachromatic leukodystrophy]]
 
*[[Metachromatic leukodystrophy]]
*[[Methanol poisoning]]
+
*[[Metamorphopsia]]
*[[Microcephaly, microphthalmos]]
+
*[[Metaphyseal dysplasia]]
 +
*[[Methanol]]
 +
*[[Microcephaly ]]
 
*[[Microphthalmia]]
 
*[[Microphthalmia]]
*[[Microvascular complications of diabetes]]
+
*[[Microphthalmos]]
*[[Midline craniofacial anomalies and morning glory disc anomaly]]
+
*[[Microvascular diabetes complications]]
 +
*[[Microvascular disease]]
 +
*[[Midline craniofacial anomalies ]]
 
*[[Migraine]]
 
*[[Migraine]]
*[[Mitochondrial diseases]]  
+
*[[Minamata disease]]
 +
*[[Mitochondrial disease ]]
 +
*[[Monosodium methanarsenate ]]
 
*[[Monosodium methyl arsenate]]
 
*[[Monosodium methyl arsenate]]
*[[Morpholine]]
+
*[[Morning glory disc anomaly]]
*[[Motor and sensory neuropathy, optic atrophy and sensorineural hearing loss]]
+
*[[Morpholine ]]
 +
*[[Mucolipidosis]]
 +
*[[Mucopolysaccharidosis]]
 +
*[[Mucormycosis ]]
 
*[[Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue]]
 
*[[Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue]]
*[[Mucolipidosis]]
+
*[[Mucous membrane pemphigoid]]
*[[Mucopolysaccharidosis|Mucopolysaccharidosis type i hurler syndrome/scheie syndrome]]
 
*[[Mucormycosis]]  
 
 
*[[Multifocal choroiditis]]
 
*[[Multifocal choroiditis]]
*[[Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1]]
+
*[[Multiple endocrine neoplasia type ]]
 
*[[Multiple lentigines syndrome]]
 
*[[Multiple lentigines syndrome]]
*[[Multiple sclerosis]]
+
*[[Multiple sclerosis ]]
 
*[[Mycosis fungoides]]
 
*[[Mycosis fungoides]]
 
*[[Nalidixic acid]]
 
*[[Nalidixic acid]]
 
*[[Nasopharyngeal carcinoma]]
 
*[[Nasopharyngeal carcinoma]]
 +
*[[Nasopharyngeal carcinoma ]]
 +
*[[Nasopharynx cancer ]]
 
*[[Nelson syndrome]]
 
*[[Nelson syndrome]]
*[[Neuraminidase deficiency]]
+
*[[Neuroaxonal dystrophy]]
*[[Neuroaxonal dystrophy, infantile]]
+
*[[Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation]]
*[[Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 2]]
+
*[[Neurodegenerative syndrome]]
*[[Neurodegenerative syndrome, x-linked, hamel type]]
+
*[[Neurofibromatosis]]
 
*[[Neuromyelitis optica]]
 
*[[Neuromyelitis optica]]
*[[Neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa]]
+
*[[Neuropathic ataxia ]]
*[[Neurofibromatosis]]
+
*[[Neuropathy ]]
*[[Niemann-Pick disease|Niemann-pick disease]]
+
*[[Niemann-pick disease]]
*[[Night blindness, skeletal anomalies, unusual facies]]
+
*[[Night blindness]]
*[[Night blindness, congenital stationary, autosomal dominant]]
+
*[[Noble-bass-sherman syndrome ]]
*[[Noble-bass-sherman syndrome]]  
+
*[[Norrie syndrome ]]
*[[Norrie syndrome]]
 
 
*[[Nortriptyline]]
 
*[[Nortriptyline]]
*[[Occipital lobe tumours]]  
+
*[[Nutritional amblyopia]]
*[[Mucous membrane pemphigoid|Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid]]
+
*[[Nutritional deficiencies]]
*[[Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome|Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome]]
+
*[[Nyssen-van bogaert syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Obal syndrome]]
 +
*[[Occipital lobe tumours]]
 +
*[[Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid ]]
 +
*[[Ocular herpes ]]
 +
*[[Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome ]]
 
*[[Ocular ischemic syndrome]]
 
*[[Ocular ischemic syndrome]]
*[[Cross syndrome|Oculocerebral-hypopigmentation syndrome]]
+
*[[Ocular oncology]]
 +
*[[Ocular trauma]]
 +
*[[Oculocerebrorenal syndrome]]
 
*[[Oculocutaneous albinism]]
 
*[[Oculocutaneous albinism]]
*[[Oguchi disease]]
+
*[[Oguchi disease ]]
*[[Olivopontocerebellar atrophy|Olivopontocerebellar atrophy type 3]]
+
*[[Oligodontia]]
 +
*[[Olivopontocerebellar atrophy ]]
 
*[[Open-angle glaucoma]]
 
*[[Open-angle glaucoma]]
 
*[[Ophthalmia neonatorum]]
 
*[[Ophthalmia neonatorum]]
 
*[[Ophthalmoplegia]]
 
*[[Ophthalmoplegia]]
 +
*[[Optic atrophy]]
 +
*[[Optic nerve compression]]
 +
*[[Optic nerve disorder]]
 
*[[Optic neuritis]]
 
*[[Optic neuritis]]
*[[Optic pathway glioma]]
+
*[[Optic pathway glioma ]]
*[[Osteopetrosis]]
+
*[[Opticoacoustic nerve atrophy dementia ]]
*[[Partial monosomy 13q]]
+
*[[Orbit tumour ]]
*[[Uveitis|Panuveitis]]
+
*[[Orbital lymphangioma ]]
 +
*[[Orbital mass]]
 +
*[[Ornithine translocase deficiency]]
 +
*[[Osteochondrodysplatic dwarfism]]
 +
*[[Osteoporosis ]]
 +
*[[Pachydermoperiostosis]]
 +
*[[Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration ]]
 +
*[[Panuveitis ]]
 
*[[Papilledema]]
 
*[[Papilledema]]
 
*[[Papillitis]]
 
*[[Papillitis]]
 +
*[[Papilloedema]]
 +
*[[Papilloedema ]]
 
*[[Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration]]
 
*[[Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration]]
*[[Pepper spray]]
+
*[[Partial monosomy 13q]]
 +
*[[Pellagra-like syndrome]]
 +
*[[Pepper spray ]]
 
*[[Periorbital cellulitis]]
 
*[[Periorbital cellulitis]]
 +
*[[Peripheral type neurofibromatosis ]]
 +
*[[Phacolytic glaucoma ]]
 
*[[Phenylbutazone]]
 
*[[Phenylbutazone]]
*[[Phenytoin toxicity]]
+
*[[Phenytoin toxicity ]]
*[[Phosgene oxime|Phosgene oxime exposure]]
+
*[[Phosgene oxime]]
 
*[[Photopsia]]
 
*[[Photopsia]]
 
*[[Physostigmine]]
 
*[[Physostigmine]]
*[[Retinitis pigmentosa|Pigmentary retinopathy]]
+
*[[Pigmentary retinopathy ]]
 +
*[[Pipecolic acidemia]]
 
*[[Pituitary adenoma]]
 
*[[Pituitary adenoma]]
*[[Pipecolic acidemia]]
+
*[[Plant poisoning ]]
*[[Plum syndrome]]
+
*[[Plum syndrome ]]
*[[Polychondritis]]
+
*[[Polychondritis ]]
 +
*[[Posterior column ataxia ]]
 
*[[Posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome]]
 
*[[Posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome]]
*[[Posterior vitreous detachment]]
+
*[[Posterior vitreous detachment ]]
*[[Pre-eclampsia|Pregnancy hypertension]]
+
*[[Pre-eclampsia]]
*[[Presbyopia]]
+
*[[Pregnancy toxemia ]]
*[[AL amyloidosis|Primary systemic amyloidosis]]
+
*[[Presbyopia ]]
*[[Prochlorperazine]]  
+
*[[Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome]]
 +
*[[Prochlorperazine]]
 
*[[Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy]]
 
*[[Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy]]
 
*[[Progressive supranuclear palsy]]
 
*[[Progressive supranuclear palsy]]
*[[Color blindness|Protanopia]]
+
*[[Protanopia ]]
 
*[[Pseudotumor cerebri]]
 
*[[Pseudotumor cerebri]]
*[[Pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like disorder with multiple coagulation factor deficiency]]
+
*[[Pseudoxanthoma elasticum]]
 
*[[Psychogenic]]
 
*[[Psychogenic]]
 
*[[Pterygium]]
 
*[[Pterygium]]
*[[Purtscher's retinopathy|Purtscher retinopathy]]
+
*[[Purtscher's retinopathy]]
*[[Metaphyseal dysplasia|Pyle disease]]
+
*[[Pyle disease ]]
*[[Pyruvate decarboxylase|Pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency]]  
+
*[[Pyruvate decarboxylase]]
*[[Quinidine]]  
+
*[[Pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency ]]
*[[Intraocular pressure|Raised intraocular pressure]]
+
*[[Quinidine]]
*[[Ramos-Arroyo syndrome|Ramos-arroyoclark syndrome]]
+
*[[Raised intraocular pressure]]
 +
*[[Ramos-arroyo syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Reese-ellsworth syndrome ]]
 
*[[Refractive error]]
 
*[[Refractive error]]
*[[Retinal degeneration]]
+
*[[Refsum disease ]]
*[[Retinal detachment]]  
+
*[[Renal tubulopathy ]]
 +
*[[Retinal artery occlusion]]
 +
*[[Retinal cone dystrophy ]]
 +
*[[Retinal degeneration ]]
 +
*[[Retinal detachment]]
 
*[[Retinal dysplasia]]
 
*[[Retinal dysplasia]]
*[[Retinal migraine]]  
+
*[[Retinal migraine ]]
*[[Retinal tear]]
+
*[[Retinal tear ]]
*[[Retinal vein occlusion]]
+
*[[Retinal vein occlusion ]]
*[[Retinitis punctata albescens]]
+
*[[Retinitis pigmentosa]]
*[[Retinoblastoma]]
+
*[[Retinitis punctata albescens ]]
 +
*[[Retinoblastoma ]]
 
*[[Retinopathy]]
 
*[[Retinopathy]]
*[[Retinoschisis]]
+
*[[Retinoschisis ]]
 
*[[Retrolental fibroplasia]]
 
*[[Retrolental fibroplasia]]
 
*[[Rhabditida]]
 
*[[Rhabditida]]
 
*[[Rhabdomyosarcoma]]
 
*[[Rhabdomyosarcoma]]
*[[Zygomycosis|Rhinocerebral mucormycosis]]
+
*[[Rhinocerebral mucormycosis ]]
 +
*[[Rhinocerebral zygomycosis ]]
 +
*[[Rhino-orbito-cerebral phycomycosis ]]
 +
*[[Rieger syndrome ]]
 
*[[Rift valley fever]]
 
*[[Rift valley fever]]
 
*[[Roberts syndrome]]
 
*[[Roberts syndrome]]
 
*[[Rofecoxib]]
 
*[[Rofecoxib]]
 +
*[[Rollet syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Roy-maroteaux-kremp syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Rufous oculocutaneous albinism ]]
 
*[[Sandhoff disease]]
 
*[[Sandhoff disease]]
 
*[[Sarcoidosis]]
 
*[[Sarcoidosis]]
 
*[[Schindler disease]]
 
*[[Schindler disease]]
 
*[[Scleritis]]
 
*[[Scleritis]]
*[[Sclerostin|Sclerosteosis]]
+
*[[Sclerosteosis ]]
*[[Secernentea|Secernentea infections]]
+
*[[Sclerostin]]
 +
*[[Secernentea]]
 +
*[[Senile macular degeneration]]
 +
*[[Senile retinoschisis]]
 +
*[[Senior-loken syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Senter syndrome ]]
 
*[[Septo-optic dysplasia]]
 
*[[Septo-optic dysplasia]]
 +
*[[Septum pellucidum]]
 
*[[Shaken baby syndrome]]
 
*[[Shaken baby syndrome]]
 
*[[Shingles]]
 
*[[Shingles]]
 
*[[Sialidosis]]
 
*[[Sialidosis]]
 
*[[Sickle cell anemia]]
 
*[[Sickle cell anemia]]
*[[Smith Martin Dodd syndrome|Smith-martin-dodd syndrome]]
+
*[[Simell-takki syndrome]]
*[[Cerebral palsy|Spastic tetraplegic]]
+
*[[Singh-chhaparwal-dhanda syndrome]]
 +
*[[Small syndrome ]]
 +
*[[Smith martin dodd syndrome]]
 +
*[[Spastic tetraplegic ]]
 
*[[Spherophakia-brachymorphia syndrome]]
 
*[[Spherophakia-brachymorphia syndrome]]
 
*[[Spinocerebellar ataxia]]
 
*[[Spinocerebellar ataxia]]
 
*[[Stargardt disease]]
 
*[[Stargardt disease]]
*[[Glaucoma|Steroid induced glaucoma]]
+
*[[Stevens-johnson syndrome]]
*[[Stevens-Johnson syndrome]]
 
 
*[[Stickler syndrome]]
 
*[[Stickler syndrome]]
 +
*[[Striped blister beetle poisoning ]]
 
*[[Stroke]]
 
*[[Stroke]]
 
*[[Subacute combined degeneration of the cord]]
 
*[[Subacute combined degeneration of the cord]]
*[[Subacute myelo-optic neuropathy|Subacute myelo-optico neuropathy syndrome]]
+
*[[Subacute myelo-optic neuropathy]]
*[[Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis|Subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis]]
+
*[[Subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis ]]
 +
*[[Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis]]
 
*[[Sudanophilic cerebral sclerosis]]
 
*[[Sudanophilic cerebral sclerosis]]
*[[Superior orbital fissure|Superior orbital fissure syndrome]]
+
*[[Superior orbital fissure]]
*[[Cenani Lenz syndactylism]]
+
*[[Syndactyly]]
 
*[[Syphilis]]
 
*[[Syphilis]]
 
*[[Takayasu arteritis]]
 
*[[Takayasu arteritis]]
*[[Tay-Sachs disease]]
+
*[[Tapetal-like reflex ]]
 +
*[[Tay-sachs disease]]
 
*[[Temozolomide]]
 
*[[Temozolomide]]
 
*[[Temporal arteritis]]
 
*[[Temporal arteritis]]
 
*[[Thalidomide]]
 
*[[Thalidomide]]
 
*[[Thallium poisoning]]
 
*[[Thallium poisoning]]
*[[Graves ophthalmopathy|Thyroid eye disease]]
+
*[[Thanos syndrome ]]
*[[Tolosa-Hunt syndrome]]
+
*[[Thyroid eye disease ]]
 +
*[[Tolosa-hunt syndrome]]
 
*[[Toxins]]
 
*[[Toxins]]
 
*[[Toxoplasmosis]]
 
*[[Toxoplasmosis]]
*[[Trachoma]]
+
*[[Trachoma ]]
 
*[[Transient ischaemic attack]]
 
*[[Transient ischaemic attack]]
*[[Familial amyloid polyneuropathy|Transthyretin amyloidosis]]
+
*[[Transthyretin amyloidosis ]]
*[[Treacher Collins syndrome]]  
+
*[[Treacher collins syndrome]]
 
*[[Usher syndrome]]
 
*[[Usher syndrome]]
 +
*[[Uveal diseases]]
 
*[[Uveal melanoma]]
 
*[[Uveal melanoma]]
 
*[[Uveitis]]
 
*[[Uveitis]]
*[[Vasculitis]]
+
*[[Vascular diseases]]
*[[Bothnia retina dystrophy|Vasterbotten dystrophy]]
+
*[[Vascular retinopathies]]
 +
*[[Vasculitis ]]
 +
*[[Vasterbotten dystrophy ]]
 +
*[[Verloes van maldergem marneffe syndrome ]]
 
*[[Vertebral artery dissection]]
 
*[[Vertebral artery dissection]]
 
*[[Verteporfin]]
 
*[[Verteporfin]]
 
*[[Vigabatrin]]
 
*[[Vigabatrin]]
*[[Vision impairment]]
+
*[[Vision impairment ]]
 
*[[Visual hallucinations]]
 
*[[Visual hallucinations]]
*[[Vitamin A deficiency|Vitamin a deficiency]]
+
*[[Vitamin a deficiency]]
*[[Posterior vitreous detachment|Vitreous detachment]]
+
*[[Vitelliform macular dystrophy]]
 +
*[[Vitreous detachment ]]
 
*[[Vitreous floaters]]
 
*[[Vitreous floaters]]
*[[Vitelliform macular dystrophy]]
+
*[[Vitreous hemorrhage]]
*[[Intraocular hemorrhage|Vitreous haemorrhage]]
+
*[[Von hippel-lindau disease]]
*[[Angiomatosis|Von hippel-lindau disease]]
+
*[[Wagener syndrome ]]
*[[Stickler syndrome|Wagner-stickler syndrome]]
+
*[[Wagner-stickler syndrome]]
*[[WAGR syndrome]]
+
*[[Wagr syndrome]]
 
*[[Wegener's granulomatosis]]
 
*[[Wegener's granulomatosis]]
*[[Weill-Marchesani syndrome|Weill-marchesani syndrome]]
+
*[[Wegener's granulomatosis ]]
 +
*[[Weill-marchesani syndrome]]
 
*[[Wells jankovic syndrome]]
 
*[[Wells jankovic syndrome]]
 
*[[Wildervanck syndrome]]
 
*[[Wildervanck syndrome]]
 
*[[Wilms tumor]]
 
*[[Wilms tumor]]
 
*[[Winchester syndrome]]
 
*[[Winchester syndrome]]
*[[Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome|Wittwer sydnrome]]
+
*[[Wolf-hirschhorn syndrome]]
 
*[[Wolfram syndrome]]
 
*[[Wolfram syndrome]]
 
*[[Woods black norbury syndrome]]
 
*[[Woods black norbury syndrome]]
 
*[[Wrinkly skin syndrome]]
 
*[[Wrinkly skin syndrome]]
*[[Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome|Wyburn mason's syndrome]]
+
*[[Wyburn-mason syndrome ]]
 
*[[Xanthomatosis cerebrotendinous]]
 
*[[Xanthomatosis cerebrotendinous]]
 +
*[[X-linked congenital stationary night blindness]]
 +
*[[X-linked intellectual disability]]
 
*[[Ziconotide]]
 
*[[Ziconotide]]
 
*[[Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome]]
 
*[[Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome]]

Latest revision as of 23:19, 10 January 2020

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Jyostna Chouturi, M.B.B.S [2] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S.

Synonyms and Keywords: Visual loss

Overview

Vision loss is the absence of vision where it existed before, which can happen either acutely (i.e. abruptly) or chronically (i.e. over a long period of time). It may be caused by media opacities, retinal disease, optic nerve disease, visual pathway disorders, or functional disorders, or it may be due to an abnormality in the central nervous system.

Classification

In order to gain insight into the pathophysiology of vision loss which will in turn guide treatment decisions, the signs and symptoms should be characterized:

  • Unilateral
  • Bilateral
  • Transient
  • Persistant
  • Sudden
  • Gradual
  • Painless
  • Painful

Pathophysiology

Media Opacity

Opacities of the clear refractive media of the eye such as the cornea, anterior chamber, lens, and vitreous humor may cause acute visual loss as manifested by blurry vision or reduced visual acuity. While pupillary reflexes may be affected, these conditions generally do not cause a relative afferent pupillary defect.

Causes of media opacity include corneal edema, hyphema, cataract and vitreous hemorrhage.

Retinal Disease

Retinal diseases may cause sudden visual loss. Because the retina is being affected, there is usually a concomitant relative afferent pupillary defect. Conditions that affect or destroy the retina include retinal detachment; macular disease (e.g., macular degeneration); and retinal vascular occlusions, the most important of which is central retinal artery occlusion.

Optic Nerve Disease

Diseases which affect the optic nerve may cause acute visual loss. Signs include an abnormal pupillary reflex, with an afferent pupillary defect when the optic nerve disease is unilateral.

The optic nerve can be affected by many diseases including optic neuritis, retrobulbar neuritis, papillitis, papilledema, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, and giant cell arteritis.

Hypoxia

The eye is very sensitive to restriction of its supply of oxygen. A dimming of vision (a brownout or greyout) accompanied by loss of peripheral perception may result from low blood pressure, shock, g-LOC (an aviation related problem) or simply standing up suddenly, especially if sick or otherwise infirm. Vision usually returns readily once the conditions restricting blood flow are lifted.

Visual Pathway Disorder

Visual pathway disorders are any problems that may impede the visual pathway. Rarely, acute visual loss is caused by homonymous hemianopia and, more rarely, cortical blindness.

Functional Disorder

The term functional disorder is now used where hysterical and malingering were historically used. This shift recognizes the inherent inability of the physician to identify the subjective experience of a patient (and thus whether that patient can truly see or not).

Causes

Transient Vision Loss (<24 hours)

  • Amaurosis fugax
  • Vision loss is unilateral and lasts only minutes
  • Vision loss lasts 10-60 minutes
  • Raised intracranial pressure
  • Malignant hypertension
  • Retinal detachment
  • Sudden change in blood pressure
  • Orthostatic hypotension
  • Transient acute increase in thraocular pressure
  • Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma
  • Retro-or peribulbar hemorrhage
  • Vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency
  • Vision loss is bilateral and lasts minutes
  • Vitreous hemorrhage
  • Vitreous detachment

Vision Loss > 24 hours:Sudden, Painless

  • Exposure(Welder's flash)
  • prolonged exposure to intense light/sunlight
  • Ischemic optic neuropathy
  • To prevent permanent loss, rule out giant cell/temporal arteritis
  • Other retinal or central nervous system disease
  • Occipital lobe CVA causing cortical blindness
  • Optic Neuritis
  • Retinal artery/vein occlusion
  • Retinal detachment
  • Vitreous or aqueous hemmorrhage (hyphema)

Vision Loss >24 hours:Gradual, Painless

  • Chronic corneal disease
  • Corneal dystrophy
  • Corneal Ulcer
  • Open angle Glaucoma
  • Optic neuropathy/atrophy
  • Compressive lesion
  • Toxic-metabolic cause
  • Radiation
  • Pseudotumor cerebri
  • Refractive error
  • Retitnitis pigmentosa

Vision Loss >24 hours:Painful

  • Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma
  • Corneal hydrops
  • Keratoconus
  • Corneal abrasion/ulcer
  • Herepes simplex/zoster
  • Ocular onchocerciasis
  • "River blindness"
  • Onchocera volvulus worm
  • Optic neuritis
  • Orbital apex/superior orbital fissure/cavernous sinus syndrome
  • Uveitis


Life-Threatening Causes

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Al amyloidosis, Arachnoiditis, Arteriovenous malformation, Atherosclerosis, Basilar artery insufficiency syndrome, Basilar artery migraine , Cardiomyopathy, Carotid atherosclerosis, Carotid-cavernous fistula, Central retinal artery occlusion, Central retinal vein occlusion, Central serous chorioretinopathy, Cerebrovascular accident, Charge syndrome, Giant cell arteritis, Hurler syndrome, Hypertension of pregnancy, Ischemic optic neuropathy, Malignant hypertension, Microvascular diabetes complications, Microvascular disease, Ocular ischemic syndrome, Retinal artery occlusion, Retinal vein occlusion , Stroke, Takayasu arteritis, Temporal arteritis, Transient ischaemic attack, Vascular diseases, Vascular retinopathies, Vasculitis , Vertebral artery dissection
Chemical/Poisoning Aminosalicylic acid, Capreomycin sulfate, Herbal agent overdose , Irinotecan hydrochloride, Mayapple poisoning , Monosodium methanarsenate , O'higgins disease , Radium chloride, Strontium chloride, Valganciclovir hydrochloride
Dental Oligodontia
Dermatologic Albinism, Alezzandrini syndrome , Behcet's disease, Cross syndrome, Ectodermal dysplasia , Keratitis, Keratomalacia, Mucous membrane pemphigoid, Oculocutaneous albinism, Pachydermoperiostosis, Panuveitis , Pigmentary retinopathy , Rufous oculocutaneous albinism , Shingles
Drug Side Effect Amitriptyline, Carbachol, Carbamazepine, Celecoxib, Cesium, Chalazion, Chlorpheniramine, Cinnarizine, Clomifene, Coenzyme q - cytochrome c reductase, Deferoxamine, Desipramine, Diphenhydramine, Dothiepin, Hydroxyzine, Ivabradine, Lithium, Mefloquine, Methanol, Monosodium methanarsenate , Monosodium methyl arsenate, Morpholine , Nortriptyline, Phenylbutazone, Physostigmine, Pipecolic acidemia, Prochlorperazine, Pterygium, Quinidine, Rofecoxib, Sclerostin, Septum pellucidum, Temozolomide, Thalidomide, Verteporfin, Vigabatrin
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Albinism, Ceroid lipofuscinosis, Citrullinemia , Empty sella syndrome , Graves ophthalmopathy, Infantile refsum disease, Kallmann syndrome, Linear iga bullous dermatosis, Mucopolysaccharidosis, Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 , Nelson syndrome, Niemann-pick disease, Nyssen-van bogaert syndrome , Pellagra-like syndrome, Pituitary adenoma, Thyroid eye disease 
Environmental Foreign body
Gastroenterologic Diabetic ketoacidosis, Herpetic keratitis , Hurler syndrome, Mucormycosis , Sandhoff disease
Genetic 13q deletion syndrome, 3 alpha methylglutaconicaciduria, Alström syndrome, Amaurosis congenita of leber , Amelogenesis imperfecta, Ampola syndrome , Bardet-biedl syndrome, Blue cone monochromatism , Cassia stocco dos santos syndrome, Cenani lenz syndactylism, Charcot-marie-tooth syndrome, Chromosome 11, deletion 11p , Chromosome 13, partial monosomy 13q , Chromosome 13q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 13q deletion , Chromosome 14q, partial deletion , Chromosome 17, deletion 17q23 q24 , Chromosome 2p deletion syndrome , Classic childhood ald , Cohen syndrome, Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1g , Cross syndrome, Deletion 11p , Deletion 13q , Didmoad syndrome, Ehlers-danlos syndrome , Emanuel syndrome , Familial amyloid polyneuropathy, Familial infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy, Franceschetti-klein syndrome , Francois dyscephalic syndrome , Goldberg–shprintzen syndrome, Gronblad-strandberg-touraine syndrome, Gustavson syndrome , Hallervorden-spatz syndrome , Hand-schuller-christian syndrome, Hereditary diseases, Herns syndrome , Imidazole syndrome, Incontinentia pigmenti, Infant cytomegalic virus , Juvenile retinoschisis , Kearns–sayre syndrome, Krause-kivlin syndrome, Lawrence-moon syndrome, Leber's congenital amaurosis, Lobstein disease, Mercaptolactace-cysteine disulfiduria, Neuroaxonal dystrophy, Noble-bass-sherman syndrome , Norrie syndrome , Oguchi disease , Osteochondrodysplatic dwarfism, Partial monosomy 13q, Plum syndrome , Polychondritis , Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Purtscher's retinopathy, Pyle disease , Rieger syndrome , Roberts syndrome, Roy-maroteaux-kremp syndrome , Schindler disease, Sialidosis, Simell-takki syndrome, Singh-chhaparwal-dhanda syndrome, Small syndrome , Smith martin dodd syndrome, Spherophakia-brachymorphia syndrome, Stargardt disease, Stevens-johnson syndrome, Stickler syndrome, Syndactyly, Tapetal-like reflex , Tay-sachs disease, Treacher collins syndrome, Usher syndrome
Hematologic Aspartoacylase deficiency, Avitaminosis, Brain aneurysm, Canavan leukodystrophy , Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, Cree leukoencephalopathy , Diabetes insipidus, Ebola , Familial infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy, Galactokinase deficiency, Homonymous hemianopia, Hypoglycaemia, Intraocular hemorrhage, Krabbe leukodystrophy, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Leukodystrophy, Lymphoma, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, Ornithine translocase deficiency, Posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Sickle cell anemia, Subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis , Transthyretin amyloidosis , Vitamin a deficiency
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Acanthamoeba, Achromatopsia, Acromegaloid, Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Acute retinal necrosis, Alveolar hydatid disease, Blepharitis, Congenital cytomegalovirus infection, Congenital rubella syndrome, Congenital toxoplasmosis, Creutzfeldt jakob disease, Cytomegalovirus retinitis , Cytomegalovirus , Ebola , Euphorbiaceae, Feline spongiform encephalopathy , Fundus albipunctatus, Giant cell arteritis, Helminth infections , Herpes simplex, Hiv, Infant cytomegalic virus , Inflammatory processes, Mucormycosis , Multifocal choroiditis, Mycosis fungoides, Ocular herpes , Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome , Panuveitis , Papillitis, Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, Rhabditida, Rhinocerebral mucormycosis , Rhinocerebral zygomycosis , Rhino-orbito-cerebral phycomycosis , Rift valley fever, Secernentea, Shingles, Syphilis, Toxoplasmosis, Uveitis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Cardiomyopathy, Cartilaginous, Ciliary muscle spasm, Cycloplegia, Dysosteosclerosis , Episodic ataxia, Neuropathic ataxia , Osteoporosis , Posterior column ataxia , Rhabdomyosarcoma, Spastic tetraplegic , Spinocerebellar ataxia
Neurologic Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Alpers' disease, Amaurosis fugax, Anencephaly , Arachnoiditis, Basilar artery migraine , Batten disease, Bessman-baldwin syndrome , Bilateral occipital lobe infarct, Bilateral optic neuritis, Bilateral papilloedema, Bonnet-dechaume-blanc syndrome, Brain aneurysm, Brain tumors, Cerebral palsy, Ceroid lipofuscinosis, Charcot-marie-tooth syndrome, Cluster headache, Concussion, Conversion disorder, Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia , Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, Craniosynostosis , Craniotelencephalic dysplasia , Creutzfeldt jakob disease, Devic disease , Empty sella syndrome , Encephalocele anterior , Encephalocele frontal , Encephalocele, Endophthalmitis, Episodic ataxia, Esthesioneuroblastoma , Fahr's syndrome, Familial amyloid polyneuropathy, Feline spongiform encephalopathy , Flynn-aird syndrome , Ghose-sachdev-kumar syndrome , Heidenhain syndrome , Hydranencephaly , Hydrocephalus , Increased intracranial pressure, Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, Ischemic optic neuropathy, Jensen syndrome , Lethal congenital contracture syndrome, Lowe oculocerebrorenal syndrome , Microcephaly , Midline craniofacial anomalies , Migraine, Minamata disease, Mitochondrial disease , Morning glory disc anomaly, Multiple lentigines syndrome, Multiple sclerosis , Neuroaxonal dystrophy, Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, Neurodegenerative syndrome, Neurofibromatosis, Neuromyelitis optica, Neuropathic ataxia , Neuropathy , Niemann-pick disease, Night blindness, Oculocerebrorenal syndrome, Olivopontocerebellar atrophy , Ophthalmoplegia, Optic nerve compression, Optic nerve disorder, Optic neuritis, Optic pathway glioma , Opticoacoustic nerve atrophy dementia , Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration , Papilledema, Papilloedema, Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, Peripheral type neurofibromatosis , Photopsia, Posterior column ataxia , Progressive supranuclear palsy, Pseudotumor cerebri, Retinal migraine , Rhinocerebral mucormycosis , Rhinocerebral zygomycosis , Rhino-orbito-cerebral phycomycosis , Rift valley fever, Senior-loken syndrome , Spastic tetraplegic , Spinocerebellar ataxia, Subacute myelo-optic neuropathy, Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Sudanophilic cerebral sclerosis, Tay-sachs disease, Temporal arteritis, Tolosa-hunt syndrome, Treacher collins syndrome, Vertebral artery dissection, Visual hallucinations
Nutritional/Metabolic Avitaminosis, Blue diaper syndrome, Diabetes insipidus, Diabetic eye disease , Diabetic ketoacidosis, Diabetic retinopathy , Gangliosidosis , Hypoglycaemia, Imidazole syndrome, Microvascular diabetes complications, Mucolipidosis, Nutritional deficiencies, Osteoporosis , Pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency , Pyruvate decarboxylase, Schindler disease, Sclerosteosis , Senter syndrome , Sialidosis, Vitamin a deficiency,
Obstetric/Gynecologic Hypertension of pregnancy, Pre-eclampsia
Oncologic Brain tumors, Car syndrome , Eye cancer, Eye melanoma , Glioblastoma , Intraocular melanoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Lymphoma, Melanoma of the choroid , Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 , Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Nasopharynx cancer , Occipital lobe tumours, Ocular oncology, Orbit tumour , Orbital lymphangioma , Orbital mass, Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, Phacolytic glaucoma , Pituitary adenoma, Pseudotumor cerebri, Retinoblastoma , Rhabdomyosarcoma, Trachoma , Uveal melanoma
Ophthalmologic Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, Acute retinal necrosis, Age-related macular degeneration, Amaurosis fugax, Amblyopia, Angioid streaks , Aniridia , Anisometropia , Anophthalmia, Anophthalmos, Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis, Arteriovenous malformation, Asthenopia , Autoimmune uveitis , Axenfeld-rieger syndrome, Basement membrane corneal dystrophy, Benign essential blepharospasm, Bessman-baldwin syndrome , Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, Best's disease, Bilateral occipital lobe infarct, Bilateral optic neuritis, Blepharitis, Blind spot, Blindness, Bothnia retina dystrophy, Calcification of basal ganglia , Carotid-cavernous fistula, Cataract, Central retinal artery occlusion, Central retinal vein occlusion, Central serous chorioretinopathy, Chandler's syndrome, Chorioretinitis , Choroideremia , Choroiditis , Cloudy cornea (patient information), Cogan-reese syndrome , Cogan's syndrome , Coloboma, Color blindness, Cone dystrophy , Cone rod dystrophy , Congenital x-linked retinoschisis , Conversion disorder, Cornea plana 1, Corneal dystrophy, Corneal foreign body, Corneal hypesthesia , Corneal opacity, Corneal ulcer , Cortical blindness, Cortical hyperostosis, Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia , Cycloplegia, Cystoid macular dystrophy, Cytomegalovirus retinitis , Dermatoosteolysis, Devic disease , Diabetic eye disease , Diabetic retinopathy , Dry eye, Eales disease, Endophthalmitis, Enhanced s-cone syndrome , Essential iris atrophy, Eye cancer, Eye injury, Eye melanoma , Fuchs atrophia gyrata chorioideae et retinae , Fuchs' dystrophy, Glaucoma, Hemianopia , Hyperopia, Hyperornithinemia , Hyphema, Infantile cortical hyperostosis, Intraocular hemorrhage, Intraocular melanoma, Intraocular pressure, Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome, Iridocyclitis, Iridogoniodysgenesis, Lattice corneal dystrophy , Leber's congenital amaurosis, Leber's optic atrophy, Lens pathology, Lowe oculocerebrorenal syndrome , Macular degeneration, Macular dystrophy, Macular edema, Macular hole, Maculopathy, Malignant hypertension, Marsden syndrome , Marshall syndrome, Melanoma of the choroid , Metamorphopsia, Metaphyseal dysplasia, Microphthalmia, Microphthalmos, Morning glory disc anomaly, Multifocal choroiditis, Neuromyelitis optica, Night blindness, Nutritional amblyopia, Obal syndrome, Occipital lobe tumours, Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid , Ocular herpes , Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome , Ocular ischemic syndrome, Ocular oncology, Ocular trauma, Oculocerebrorenal syndrome, Oculocutaneous albinism, Oguchi disease , Oligodontia, Olivopontocerebellar atrophy , Open-angle glaucoma, Ophthalmia neonatorum, Ophthalmoplegia, Optic atrophy, Optic nerve compression, Optic nerve disorder, Optic neuritis, Optic pathway glioma , Opticoacoustic nerve atrophy dementia , Orbit tumour , Orbital lymphangioma , Orbital mass, Osteochondrodysplatic dwarfism, Papillitis, Periorbital cellulitis, Photopsia, Pigmentary retinopathy , Posterior vitreous detachment , Presbyopia , Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Protanopia , Purtscher's retinopathy, Raised intraocular pressure, Ramos-arroyo syndrome , Reese-ellsworth syndrome , Refractive error, Refsum disease , Retinal artery occlusion, Retinal cone dystrophy , Retinal degeneration , Retinal detachment, Retinal dysplasia, Retinal migraine , Retinal tear , Retinal vein occlusion , Retinitis pigmentosa, Retinitis punctata albescens , Retinoblastoma , Retinopathy, Retinoschisis , Retrolental fibroplasia, Rollet syndrome , Rufous oculocutaneous albinism , Scleritis, Senile macular degeneration, Senile retinoschisis, Senior-loken syndrome , Septo-optic dysplasia, Simell-takki syndrome, Singh-chhaparwal-dhanda syndrome, Small syndrome , Smith martin dodd syndrome, Spherophakia-brachymorphia syndrome, Stargardt disease, Stevens-johnson syndrome, Stickler syndrome, Subacute combined degeneration of the cord, Subacute myelo-optic neuropathy, Subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis , Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Superior orbital fissure, Thyroid eye disease , Usher syndrome, Uveal diseases, Uveal melanoma, Uveitis, Vascular diseases, Vascular retinopathies, Vasculitis , Vasterbotten dystrophy , Verloes van maldergem marneffe syndrome , Vision impairment , Visual hallucinations
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric Hysteria, Mental retardation , Psychogenic, Shaken baby syndrome,
Pulmonary Alveolar hydatid disease, Sarcoidosis
Renal/Electrolyte Alport syndrome, Hypophosphatemia, Renal tubulopathy
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Al amyloidosis, Behcet's disease, Besnier-boeck-schaumann disease , Inflammatory processes, Leprosy, Mucous membrane pemphigoid, Sarcoidosis
Sexual Herpes simplex, Hiv, Syphilis
Trauma Concussion, Eye injury, Head injury , Ocular trauma, Retinal tear , Superior orbital fissure
Urologic Hypophosphatemia
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

History
include:

  • Age
  • Onset:
  • Rate of loss
  • Any specific trauma
  • Headaches
  • Medication
  • Specific medical history
  • Alcohol, drug and/or tabacco use

Physical Examination

Eyes

The examination should focus on:

  • Acuity
  • Blood pressure
  • Color vision
  • Cranial exam
  • cranial nerve innervation
  • Fundus
  • Intraocular pressure
  • Ocular media opacity
  • Optic disc exam

Laboratory Findings

  • ESR
  • Fasting blood glucose
  • HgBa1c
  • PPD
  • RPR
  • FTR-ABS
  • ACE level
  • Vitamin B12
  • Folate

MRI and CT

  • CT/MRI of head and chest

Evaluation of Monocular Transient Visual Loss

Abbreviations: TVL, transient visual loss.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Monocular TVL
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does Monocular TVL Occur Only in Certain Positions of Gaze (Gaze-Evoked TVL)?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
YES
 
 
 
NO
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Orbital MRI
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Structural lesion of orbit
 
 
 
No structural lesion of orbit
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Duration of TVL?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Causes of Transient Visual Loss Based on the Duration[1]
TVL lasts seconds TVL lasts minutes TVL lasts hours
  • Papilledema
  • Optic neuropathy
  • Congenital disc anomaly
  • Thromboembolism (rare)
  • Migraine
  • Giant cell arteritis
  • Thromboembolism
  • Hypercoagulable state
  • Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
  • Spontaneous hyphema
  • Intermittent angle closure glaucoma
  • Morning glory syndrome
  • Peripapillary staphyloma
  • Carotid artery dissection
  • Venous stasis retinopathy
  • Post-scleral buckle
  • Spontaneous hyphema
  • Thromboembolism
  • Carotid stenosis
  • Migraine
 

Treatment

Medical Therapy

  • Systemic Steroids can be prescribed for the following:
  • Temporal arteritis
  • Optic neuritis
  • Pituitary apoplexy
  • Herpes zoster
  • Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy patients
  • Asprin
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis
  • Antibiotics
  • Anticoagulation
  • Corneal hydrops
  • Cycloplegic,hypertonic NaCl ointment

Surgery

Corneal Hydrops

Corneal transplant

Retinal Detachment

Surgical repair

Cataracts

Surgical removal

Temporal Arteritis

Temporal biopsy and steroids.

Related Chapters

References

  1. Clinical Pathways in Neuro-ophthalmology: An Evidence-based Approach. ISBN 978-1588901361.




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