Difference between revisions of "Sex hormone-binding globulin"

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'''Sex hormone-binding globulin''' ('''SHBG''') is a [[glycoprotein]] that binds to [[sex hormones]], specifically [[testosterone]] and [[estradiol]]. Other steroid [[hormone]]s such as [[progesterone]], [[cortisol]], and other [[corticosteroids]] are bound by [[transcortin]].   
 
'''Sex hormone-binding globulin''' ('''SHBG''') is a [[glycoprotein]] that binds to [[sex hormones]], specifically [[testosterone]] and [[estradiol]]. Other steroid [[hormone]]s such as [[progesterone]], [[cortisol]], and other [[corticosteroids]] are bound by [[transcortin]].   
 
==Transport of sex hormones==
 
==Transport of sex hormones==
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[[Category:Endocrinology]]
 
[[Category:Endocrinology]]
  
 
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Revision as of 15:06, 20 August 2008

Sex hormone-binding globulin, Androgen-binding protein
92 1d2s-composite.jpg
Crystal structure of SHBG binding dihydrotestosterone. From PDB: 1D2S​.[1]
Identifiers
SymbolSHBG
Alt. symbolsABP
Entrez6462
HUGO10839
OMIM182205
RefSeqNM_001040
UniProtP04278
Other data
LocusChr. 17 p13-p12

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Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones, specifically testosterone and estradiol. Other steroid hormones such as progesterone, cortisol, and other corticosteroids are bound by transcortin.

Transport of sex hormones

These sex hormones circulate in the bloodstream, bound mostly to SHBG and to some degree bound to serum albumin. Only a small fraction is unbound, or "free," and thus biologically active and able to enter a cell and activate its receptor. The SHBG inhibits the function of these hormones. Thus bioavailability of sex hormones is influenced by the level of SHBG.

SHBG production

SHBG is produced by the liver cells and is released into the bloodstream. Other sites that produce SHBG are the brain, uterus, and placenta and vagina. In addition SHBG is produced by the testes; testes-produced SHBG is also called androgen-binding protein. The gene for SHBG is located on chromosome 17.

Control

SHBG levels appear to be controlled by a delicate balance of enhancing and inhibiting factors. Its level is decreased by high levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Also, high androgen levels decrease SHBG, while high estrogen and thyroxine levels increase it.

However, recent evidence suggests that it is the livers production of fats that reduces SHBG levels[2], not any direct effect of insulin and specific genetic mechanisms have been found that do this.

Conditions with high or low levels

Conditions with low SHBG include polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, and hypothyroidism. Conditions with high SHBG include pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, and anorexia nervosa. There has recently been research to link high SHBG levels with breast and testicular cancer as well.

Measurement of sex hormones

When determining levels of circulating estradiol or testosterone, either a total measurement could be done that includes the "free" and the bound fractions, or only the "free" hormone could be measured. A free androgen index expresses the ratio of testosterone to the sex hormone binding globulin and can be used to summarise the activity of free testosterone.

See also

References

  1. Grishkovskaya I, Avvakumov GV, Sklenar G, Dales D, Hammond GL, Muller YA (2000). "Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin: steroid transport by a laminin G-like domain". EMBO J. 19 (4): 504–12. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.4.504. PMID 10675319.
  2. http://www.physorg.com/news113902673.html

de:Sexualhormon-bindendes Globulin

Cost Effectiveness of Sex hormone-binding globulin

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Sex hormone-binding globulin | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Sex hormone-binding globulin at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Sex hormone-binding globulinClinical Trials on Sex hormone-binding globulin at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Sex hormone-binding globulin | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Sex hormone-binding globulinNICE Guidance on Sex hormone-binding globulinNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Sex hormone-binding globulinCDC on Sex hormone-binding globulin


| group7 = Textbook Information on Sex hormone-binding globulin | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Sex hormone-binding globulin


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Sex hormone-binding globulin | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Sex hormone-binding globulinAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Sex hormone-binding globulinAND (side effects)}} Side effects of Sex hormone-binding globulinAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Sex hormone-binding globulinAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Sex hormone-binding globulinAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Sex hormone-binding globulinAND (pregnancy)}} Sex hormone-binding globulin in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Sex hormone-binding globulin


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Sex hormone-binding globulin | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Sex hormone-binding globulinAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Sex hormone-binding globulinAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Sex hormone-binding globulin


| group10 = Newstories on Sex hormone-binding globulin | list10 = Sex hormone-binding globulin in the newsBe alerted to news on Sex hormone-binding globulinNews trends on Sex hormone-binding globulin


| group11 = Commentary on Sex hormone-binding globulin | list11 = Blogs on Sex hormone-binding globulin

| group12 = Patient Resources on Sex hormone-binding globulin | list12 = Patient resources on Sex hormone-binding globulinDiscussion groups on Sex hormone-binding globulinPatient Handouts on Sex hormone-binding globulinDirections to Hospitals Treating Sex hormone-binding globulinRisk calculators and risk factors for Sex hormone-binding globulin


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Sex hormone-binding globulin | list13 = Symptoms of Sex hormone-binding globulinCauses & Risk Factors for Sex hormone-binding globulinDiagnostic studies for Sex hormone-binding globulinTreatment of Sex hormone-binding globulin

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Sex hormone-binding globulin | list14 = CME Programs on Sex hormone-binding globulin

| group15 = International Resources on Sex hormone-binding globulin | list15 = Sex hormone-binding globulin en EspanolSex hormone-binding globulin en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Sex hormone-binding globulin | list16 = Sex hormone-binding globulin in the MarketplacePatents on Sex hormone-binding globulin

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Sex hormone-binding globulin | list17 = List of terms related to Sex hormone-binding globulin


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