Neuroactive steroid

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Overview

Apart from exerting effects on the genome via intracellular steroid receptors, neuroactive steroids (or neurosteroids) rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. Several of these steroids accumulate in the brain after local synthesis or after metabolism of adrenal steroids. The 3alpha-hydroxy ring A-reduced pregnane steroids allopregnanolone and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone have been surmised to enhance GABA-mediated chloride currents, whereas pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate display functional antagonistic properties at GABA A receptors.

Neurosteroids are synthesized in the central and peripheral nervous system, especially in myelinating glial cells, from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from peripheral sources. They include 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-compounds, such as pregnenolone (PREG) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), their sulfates, and reduced metabolites such as the tetrahydroderivative of progesterone 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnane-20-one (3 alpha,5 alpha-THPROG). These compounds can act as allosteric modulators of neurotransmitter receptors, such as GABA(A), NMDA, and sigma receptors. Progesterone (PROG) is also a neurosteroid, and a progesterone receptor (PROG-R) has been identified in peripheral and central glial cells.

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References

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See also

External links



pl.Neurosteroidy


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