Difference between revisions of "Mucormycosis"

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{{Infobox_Disease |
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__NOTOC__
  Name           = {{PAGENAME}} |
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<small>
  Image         = Periorbital fungal infection known as mucormycosis, or phycomycosis PHIL 2831 lores.jpg |
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{{Infobox Disease |
  Caption       = |
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Name = Mucormycosis |
  DiseasesDB    = 31759 |
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Image = Mucormycosis.png |
  ICD10          = {{ICD10|B|46|0|b|35}}-{{ICD10|B|46|5|b|35}} |
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Caption = Necrotic tissue in rhinocerebral mucormycosis. |
  ICD9          = {{ICD9|117.7}} |
 
  ICDO          = |
 
  OMIM          = |
 
  MedlinePlus    = |
 
  eMedicineSubj  = med |
 
  eMedicineTopic = 1513 |
 
  MeshID        = D009091 |
 
 
}}
 
}}
{{SI}}
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</small>
{{CMG}}
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{{Mucormycosis}}
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'''For patient information click [[{{PAGENAME}} (patient information)|here]].'''
  
{{EH}}
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{{CMG}}; {{AE}}{{HK}}
  
'''Mucormycosis''' (also known as zygomycosis) is a rare but serious infection of fungi of the [[Mucorales]] order.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1513.htm |title=eMedicine - Mucormycosis : Article by Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, MD MPH |accessdate=2007-09-30 |format= |work=}}</ref> The most common fungi responsible for mucormycosis in humans are ''[[Mucor]]'' and ''Rhizopus''. 
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{{SK}} Mucor infection, rhino-cerebral mucormycosis, pulmonary mucorycosis, cutaneous mucormycosis, gastrointestinal mucormycosis
  
==Presentation==
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==[[Mucormycosis overview|Overview]]==
It that frequently involves the [[sinuses]], [[brain]], or [[lungs]] and most commonly presents in [[immunocompromised]] patients. 
 
  
While orbitorhinocerebral mucormycosis is the most common type of the disease, this infection can also manifest in the [[gastrointestinal tract]], [[skin]], and in other organ systems. 
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==[[Mucormycosis historical perspective|Historical Perspective]]==
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==[[Mucormycosis classification|Classification]]==
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==[[Mucormycosis pathophysiology|Pathophysiology]]==
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==[[Mucormycosis causes|Causes]]==
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==[[Mucormycosis differential diagnosis|Differentiating Mucormycosis from other Diseases]]==
  
==Associated conditions==
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==[[Mucormycosis epidemiology and demographics|Epidemiology and Demographics]]==
Some 50-75% of patients diagnosed with mucormycosis are estimated to have underlying poorly controlled [[diabetes mellitus]] and [[ketoacidosis]]
 
  
==Treatment==
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==[[Mucormycosis risk factors|Risk Factors]]==
Surgical resection of the "fungus ball" and intravenous [[amphotericin B]] is the recommended therapy.
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==[[Mucormycosis natural history, complications and prognosis|Natural History, Complications and Prognosis]]==
  
==Case Example: Carotid Artery Mucormycosis==
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==Diagnosis==
  
===Clinical Summary===
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[[Mucormycosis diagnostic criteria|Diagnostic Criteria]] | [[Mucormycosis history and symptoms|History and Symptoms]] | [[Mucormycosis physical examination|Physical Examination]] | [[Mucormycosis laboratory findings|Laboratory Findings]] | [[Mucormycosis x ray|X Ray]] | [[Mucormycosis CT|CT]] | [[Mucormycosis MRI|MRI]] | [[Mucormycosis other imaging findings|Other Imaging Findings]] | [[Mucormycosis other diagnostic studies|Other Diagnostic Studies]]
  
A 63-year-old white male was in his usual state of good health until eight weeks before his death when he developed sudden onset of [[shortness of breath]]. A [[thoracotomy]] was performed for plication of ruptured emphysematous blebs.
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==Treatment==
 
 
Following improvement and discharge from the hospital he developed [[weakness]], [[lethargy]], and a left lower lobe lung infiltrate. The patient's condition soon deteriorated further, with almost every organ system having failed. The patient developed [[DIC]] and peripheral embolic phenomena, including [[gangrene]] of his extremities and face.
 
 
 
A single antemortem blood culture grew [[Staphylococcus aureus]].
 
 
 
===Postmortem Findings===
 
 
 
Autopsy revealed severe [[emphysema]], severe widespread abscessiform and necrotizing [[pneumonia]], and [[bacterial endocarditis]] ([[Staphylococcus aureus]]) of the [[pulmonic valve]]. The right internal carotid artery was occluded by a thrombus and there were areas of necrosis (due to CVAs) in the brain.
 
 
 
 
 
[http://www.peir.net Images courtesy of Professor Peter Anderson DVM PhD and published with permission © PEIR, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology]
 
 
 
 
 
<div align="left">
 
<gallery heights="175" widths="175">
 
Image:Carotid Artery Mucormycosis 1.jpg|This is a low-power photomicrograph of a section of carotid artery containing a mural thrombus.
 
Image:Carotid Artery Mucormycosis 2.jpg|This is a higher-power photomicrograph of the wall of the carotid artery (1) and the thrombus (2).
 
</gallery>
 
</div>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<div align="left">
 
<gallery heights="175" widths="175">
 
Image:Carotid Artery Mucormycosis 3.jpg|This is an even higher-power photomicrograph of the wall of the carotid artery (1) and the thrombus (2). Within the wall of the artery and in the thrombus there are multiple variably shaped clear areas (3). At this magnification and with this stain, it is impossible to determine what these clear spaces represent.
 
Image:Carotid Artery Mucormycosis 4.jpg|This is a higher-power photomicrograph of just the wall of the carotid artery. Note the ribbon-like clear structure with roughly parallel walls (non-septate hyphae) and right-angle branching (arrow). This is the Mucor organism.
 
</gallery>
 
</div>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<div align="left">
 
<gallery heights="175" widths="175">
 
Image:Carotid Artery Mucormycosis 5.jpg|This is another high-power photomicrograph of the wall of the artery and the thrombus. Within the thrombus there are multiple variably-shaped clear areas that represent longitudinal sections and cross sections of the Mucor organisms (arrows).
 
Image:Carotid Artery Mucormycosis 6.jpg|This medium-power photomicrograph shows the thrombus stained to outline the Mucor organisms (arrows). Note again the ribbon-like morphology and the wide-angle branching.
 
</gallery>
 
</div>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<div align="left">
 
<gallery heights="175" widths="175">
 
Image:Carotid Artery Mucormycosis 7.jpg|This is an even higher-power photomicrograph of the thrombus stained to outline the Mucor organisms (arrows).
 
Image:Carotid Artery Mucormycosis 8.jpg|
 
</gallery>
 
</div>
 
 
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
 
 
==External links==
 
*[http://www.uoflhealthcare.org/f_pressrelease.asp?id=58][http://www.mold-help.org/content/view/544/] - Articles on Mark Tatum, a victim of the disease.
 
*[http://www.newscientist.com/channel/earth/tsunami/dn6938-tsunami-survivors-risk-deadly-fungal-infections.html Tsunami survivors risk deadly fungal infections]
 
 
 
[[Category:Diseases]]
 
[[category:Parasitic fungi]]
 
 
 
[[pl:Mukormykoza]]
 
[[pt:Mucormicose]]
 
 
 
{{Mycoses}}
 
{{SIB}}
 
  
{{WH}}
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[[Mucormycosis medical therapy|Medical Therapy]] | [[Mucormycosis surgery|Surgery]] | [[Mucormycosis primary prevention|Primary Prevention]] | [[Mucormycosis secondary prevention|Secondary Prevention]] | [[Mucormycosis cost-effectiveness of therapy|Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy]] | [[Mucormycosis future or investigational therapies|Future or Investigational Therapies]]
{{WS}}
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[[Category:Emergency mdicine]]
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[[Category:Disease]]
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[[Category:Primary care]]
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[[Category:Up-To-Date]]
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[[Category:Infectious disease]]
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[[Category:Gastroenterology]]
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[[Category:Otolaryngology]]
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[[Category:Nephrology]]
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[[Category:Dermatology]]
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[[Category:Pulmonology]]

Latest revision as of 18:48, 21 September 2017


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