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Hepoxilin A3
IUPAC name (5E,9E)-8-hydroxy-10-[3-[(E)-oct-2-enyl] -2-oxiranyl]deca-5,9-dienoic acid
Other names HXA3
3D model (JSmol)
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Molar mass 336.46568
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

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Hepoxilins (HxA3 and HxB3) are nonclassic eicosanoid hormones involved in inflammation.


Hepoxilins were identified and named in Canada in 1984 by CR Pace-Asciak and JM Martin.[1]


They derive from arachidonic acid via oxidation by the enzyme 12-lipoxygenase. Hepoxilins are differentiated from closely related eicosanoids, the leukotrienes and the lipoxins, in that hepoxilins have no conjugated double bonds. Corresponding trioxlins A4 and B4 are formed by the same pathway from EPA [2]

Physiological effect

In the skin, Hx are pro-inflammatory, but in neutrophils they are anti-inflammatory.[3] Hx are potent insulin secretagogues.[2] One hepoxilin, HepA3, mediates neutrophil migration across the intestines.[4] Hepoxilins are also produced in the brain.[5] Cells under oxidative stress secrete HX3, which in turn upregulates peroxidase, decreasing oxidative stress. This is proposed to constitute a compensatory defense response to protect the vitality and functionality of the cell.[6]


  1. Pace-Asciak CR, Martin JM (1984). "Hepoxilin, a new family of insulin secretagogues formed by intact rat pancreatic islets". Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and medicine. 16 (2): 173–80. PMID 6396652.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Pace-Asciak CR (1986). "Formation of hepoxilin A4, B4 and the corresponding trioxilins from 12(S)-hydroperoxy-5,8,10,14,17-icosapentaenoic acid". Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and medicine. 22 (1): 1–9. PMID 3012585.
  3. Christie, William W. (2006). "LEUKOTRIENES AND LIPOXINS: Chemistry and Biology". Retrieved January 4. Unknown parameter |accessyear= ignored (|access-date= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. Randall J. Mrsny, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Dario Siccardi, Tor Savidge , Bryan P. Hurley , James L. Madara, and Beth A. McCormick (2004). "Identification of hepoxilin A3 in inflammatory events: A required role in neutrophil migration across intestinal epithelia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Retrieved January 4. Unknown parameter |accessyear= ignored (|access-date= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  5. Piomelli, Daniele (2000). "Arachidonic Acid". Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. Retrieved 2006-03-03.
  6. M.P. Zafiriou; et al. (October–November 2007). "Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids : Biological role of hepoxilins: Upregulation of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase as a cellular response to oxidative stress?". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 77 (3–4): 209–215. Retrieved 2007-12-04.