Difference between revisions of "Cachexia"

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Those suffering from the eating disorder [[anorexia nervosa]] appear to have high plasma levels of [[ghrelin]]. [[Ghrelin]] levels are also high in patients who have cancer-induced '''cachexia''' (Garcia et al 2005).
 
Those suffering from the eating disorder [[anorexia nervosa]] appear to have high plasma levels of [[ghrelin]]. [[Ghrelin]] levels are also high in patients who have cancer-induced '''cachexia''' (Garcia et al 2005).
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==Causes==
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===Common Causes===
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===Causes by Organ System===
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===Causes in Alphabetical Order===
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{{MultiCol}}
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*[[Acute myelosclerosis]]
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*[[Addison's disease]]
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*[[AIDS]]
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*[[Amphetamine]]
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*[[Andrade's disease]]
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*[[Anorexia nervosa]]
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*[[Atypical pneumonia]]
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*[[Breast cancer]]
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*[[Brucellosis]]
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*[[Cancer cachexia]]
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*[[Cardiac cachexia]]
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*[[Celiac disease]]
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*[[Chemotherapy]]
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*[[Chronic diarrhea]]
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*[[Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia]]
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*[[Chronic renal failure]]
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*[[Colorectal cancer]]
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*[[Congestive heart failure]]
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*[[COPD]]
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*[[Crohn's disease]]
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*[[Cystic fibrosis]]
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*[[Depression]]
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*[[Endocarditis]]
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*[[Familial amyloid polyneuropathy]]
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*[[Hepatitis B]]
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*[[Kaposi sarcoma]]
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{{ColBreak}}
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*[[Leishmaniasis]]
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*[[Leukemia]]
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*[[Liver cancer]]
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*[[Lung abscess]]
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*[[Malignancy]]
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*[[Mastocytosis]]
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*[[Mercury ]]
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*[[Metabolic acidosis]]
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*[[Metastatic neoplasm]]
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*[[Multiple sclerosis]]
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*[[Mycobacterium tuberculosis]]
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*[[Myeloma]]
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*[[Pancreatic cancer]]
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*[[Paraneoplastic syndrome]]
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*[[Polyarteritis nodosa]]
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*[[Radiotherapy]]
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*[[Riley-Shwachman syndrome]]
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*[[Sarcoidosis]]
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*[[Sepsis]]
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*[[Starvation]]
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*[[Stomach cancer]]
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*[[Systemic lupus erythematosus]]
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*[[Trypanosomiasis]]
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*[[Tuberculosis]]
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*[[Visceral leishmaniasis]]
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{{EndMultiCol}}
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
{{Reflist|2}}
  
==Related chapters==
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==Related Chapters==
 
* [[Wasting]]
 
* [[Wasting]]
  

Revision as of 14:51, 3 April 2013

Cachexia
Cachexia.jpg
ICD-10 R64
ICD-9 799.4

WikiDoc Resources for Cachexia

Articles

Most recent articles on Cachexia

Most cited articles on Cachexia

Review articles on Cachexia

Articles on Cachexia in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Cachexia

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Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Cachexia

Bandolier on Cachexia

TRIP on Cachexia

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Cachexia at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Cachexia

Clinical Trials on Cachexia at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Cachexia

NICE Guidance on Cachexia

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Cachexia

CDC on Cachexia

Books

Books on Cachexia

News

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Be alerted to news on Cachexia

News trends on Cachexia

Commentary

Blogs on Cachexia

Definitions

Definitions of Cachexia

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Cachexia

Discussion groups on Cachexia

Patient Handouts on Cachexia

Directions to Hospitals Treating Cachexia

Risk calculators and risk factors for Cachexia

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Cachexia

Causes & Risk Factors for Cachexia

Diagnostic studies for Cachexia

Treatment of Cachexia

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Cachexia

International

Cachexia en Espanol

Cachexia en Francais

Business

Cachexia in the Marketplace

Patents on Cachexia

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Cachexia

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]

Overview

Cachexia (pronounced /kəˈkɛksiə/) is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight. It can be a sign of various underlying disorders; when a patient presents with cachexia, a doctor will generally consider the possibility of cancer, certain infectious diseases (e.g. tuberculosis, AIDS) and some autoimmune disorders, or addiction to drugs such as amphetamines or cocaine. Cachexia physically weakens patients to a state of immobility stemming from loss of appetite, asthenia, and anemia, and response to standard treatment is usually poor.

Disease settings

Cachexia is often seen in end-stage cancer, and in that context is called "cancer cachexia". It was also prevalent in AIDS patients before the advent of triple-therapy for that condition; now it is seen less frequently in those countries where such treatment is available. In those patients who have Congestive Heart Failure, there is also a cachectic syndrome. Also, a cachexia co-morbidity is seen in patients that have any of the range of illnesses classified as "COPD" (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), particularly emphysema. Some severe cases of schizophrenia can present this condition where it is named vesanic cachexia.[1]

In each of these settings there is full-body wasting, which hits the skeletal muscle especially hard, resulting in muscle atrophy.

Mechanism

The exact mechanism in which these diseases cause cachexia is poorly understood, but there is probably a role for inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) -which is also nicknamed cachexin for this reason-, Interferon gamma (IFNɣ), and Interleukin 6 (IL-6), as well as the tumor secreted proteolysis inducing factor (PIF).

Related malnutrition syndromes are kwashiorkor and marasmus, although these do not always have an underlying causative illness; they are most often symptomatic of severe malnutrition.

Those suffering from the eating disorder anorexia nervosa appear to have high plasma levels of ghrelin. Ghrelin levels are also high in patients who have cancer-induced cachexia (Garcia et al 2005).

Causes

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Causes in Alphabetical Order


References

  1. "Vesanic" means demented.

Related Chapters

Resources

de:Kachexie nl:Cachexie qu:Amaychura sv:Kakeksi



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