Etymologically, vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. More broadly, it is sometimes used to describe any invasive experiment upon living animals. For some, the word has a pejorative connotation, implying torture and suffering. 
- For vivisection on human beings, see Human experimentation.
- "Vivisection", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007. Also see Croce, Pietro. Vivisection or Science? An Investigation into Testing Drugs and Safeguarding Health. Zed Books, 1999, and "FAQs: Vivisection", British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection.
- Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare. Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 22.