Vascular malformation

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Vascular malformation
Classification and external resources
MeSH D054079

For information on vascular anomalies, click here

Vascular Malformation

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Overview

Classification

Simple Vascular Malformations
Capillary Malformation
Lymphatic Malformation
Venous Malformation
Arteriovenous Malformation
Arteriovenous Fistula
Combined Vascular Malformations
Vascular Malformations of Major Named Vessels
Vascular Malformations associated With other Anomalies

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hannan Javed, M.D.[2], Anmol Pitliya, M.B.B.S. M.D.[3]


Overview

Vascular malformation is a blood vessel abnormality. There are many types, but the most common is arteriovenous malformation. Clinical behavior and growth cycles vary widely and it may cause clinical and aesthetic problems. International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) has classified vascular malformation into simple malformation, combined malformation, those of major named vessels, and those associated with other anomalies. Simple malformation have been divided further into capillary malformation, venous malformation and lymphatic malformation.

Classification

 
 
 
 
 
 
Vascular malformations
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Simple vascular malformations
 
Combined vascular malformations
 
Vascular malformations of major named vessels
 
Vascular malformations asscoiated with other anomalies
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CM + VMCapillary-venous malformationCVM
CM + LMCapillary-lymphatic malformationCLM
CM + AVMCapillary-arteriovenous malformationCAVM
LM + VMLymphatic-venous malformationLVM
CM + LM + VMCapillary-lymphatic-venous malformationCLVM
CM + LM + AVMCapillary-lymphatic-arteriovenous malformationCLVM
CM + VM + AVMCapillary-venous-arteriovenous malformationCVAVM
CM + LM + VM + AVMCapillary-lymphatic-venous-arteriovenous malformationCLVAVM
 

(also known as "channel type" or "truncal" vascular malformations)
Affect
• Lymphatics
• Veins
• Arteries
Anomalies of
• Origin
• Course
• Number
• Diameter (aplasia,
hypoplasia, stenosis,
ectasia / aneurysm)
• Valves
• Communication (AVF)
• Persistence (of
embryonal vessel)
 
Klippel-Trenaunay syndromeCM + VM +/-LM + limb overgrowth
Parke's Weber syndromeCM + AVF + limb overgrowth
Servelle-Martorell syndromeLimb VM + bone undergrowth
Sturge-Weber syndromeFacial + leptomeningeal CM + eye anomalies +/-bone and/or soft tissue overgrowth
Maffucci syndromeVM +/-spindle-cell hemangioma + enchondroma
CLOVES syndromeLM + VM + CM +/-AVM+ lipomatous overgrowth
Proteus syndromeCM, VM and/or LM + asymmetrical somatic overgrowth
Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromelower lip CM + face and neck LM + asymmetry and partial/generalized overgrowth
Limb CM + congenital non-progressive limb overgrowth
Macrocephaly-CM (M-CM / MCAP)
Microcephaly-CM (MICCAP)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capillary malformations (CM)
 
Lymphatic malformations (LM)
 
Venous malformations (VM)
 
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
 
Arteriovenous fistula
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nevus simplex / salmon patch, “angel kiss”, “stork bite
 
 
Common (cystic) LM
Macrocystic LM
Microcystic LM
Mixed cystic LM
 
 
Common VM
 
 
Sporadic
 
 
Sporadic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cutaneous and/or mucosal CM (also known as “port-wine” stain)
Nonsyndromic CM
• CM with CNS and/or ocular anomalies (Sturge-Weber syndrome)
• CM with bone and/or soft tissues overgrowth
Diffuse CM with overgrowth (DCMO)
 
 
Generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA)
Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KLA)
 
 
Familial VM cutaneo-mucosal (VMCM)
 
 
In HHT
 
 
In HHT
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reticulate CM
• CM of MIC-CAP (microcephaly-capillary malformation)
• CM of MCAP (megalencephaly-capillary malformation-polymicrogyria)
 
 
LM in Gorham-Stout disease
 
 
Blue rubber bleb nevus (Bean) syndrome VM
 
 
In CM-AVM
 
 
In CM-AVM
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CM of CM-AVM
 
 
Channel type LM
 
 
Glomuvenous malformation (GVM)
 
 
Others
 
 
Others
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC)
 
 
“Acquired” progressive lymphatic anomaly (so called acquired progressive "lymphangioma")
 
 
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Others
 
 
Primary lymphedema
 
 
Familial intraosseous vascular malformation (VMOS)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Telangiectasia
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)
• Others
 
 
Others
 
 
Verrucous venous malformation (formerly verrucous hemangioma)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Others
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Abbreviations: CM:capillary malformation; VM:venous malformation; CVM:capillary venous malformation; LM:lymphatic malformation; CLM:capillary lymphatic malformation; AVM:arteriovenous malformation; CAVM:capillary arteriovenous malformation; LVM:lymphatic venous malformation; CLVM:capillary lymphatic venous malformation; CVAVM:capillary venous arteriovenous malformation; CLVAVM:capillary lymphatic venous arteriovenous malformation; AVF:arteriovenous fistula; CLOVES:congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal/scoliosis and spinal abnormalities; M-CM:macrocephaly-capillary malformation; MCAP:megalencephaly-capillary malformation-polymicrogyria; MICCAP:microcephaly-capillary malformation; CNS:central nervous system; DCMO:diffuse capillary malformation with overgrowth; CM-AVM:capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation; CMTC:cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita; HHT:hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia; GLA:generalized lymphatic anomaly; KLA:kaposiform lymphangiomatosis; VMCM:venous malformation cutaneo mucosal; GVM:glomuvenous malformation; CCM:cerebral cavernous malformation.

Adapted from International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies[1]

Simple Vascular Malformations

Simple Vascular Malformations are divided into:

  • Capillary malformation
  • Lymphatic malformation
  • Venous malformation
  • Arteriovenous malformation
  • Arteriovenous fistula

Combined Vascular Malformations

Combined vascular malformations*
CM + VM capillary-venous malformation CVM
CM + LM capillary-lymphatic malformation CLM
CM + AVM capillary-arteriovenous malformation CAVM
LM + VM lymphatic-venous malformation LVM
CM + LM + VM capillary-lymphatic-venous malformation CLVM
CM + LM + AVM capillary-lymphatic-arteriovenous malformation CLAVM
CM + VM + AVM capillary-venous-arteriovenous malformation CVAVM
CM + LM + VM + AVM capillary-lymphatic-venous-arteriovenous m. CLVAVM
Adapted from International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies[1]

Abbreviations: CM:capillary malformation; VM:venous malformation; CVM:capillary venous malformation; LM:lymphatic malformation; CLM:capillary lymphatic malformation; AVM:arteriovenous malformation; CAVM:capillary arteriovenous malformation; LVM:lymphatic venous malformation; CLVM:capillary lymphatic venous malformation; CVAVM:capillary venous arteriovenous malformation; CLVAVM:capillary lymphatic venous arteriovenous malformation.

Vascular Malformations of Major Named Vessels

Anomalies of major named vessels

(also known as "channel type" or "truncal" vascular malformations)

Affect
  • lymphatics
  • veins
  • arteries

Anomalies of

  • origin
  • course
  • number
  • length
  • diameter (aplasia, hypoplasia, stenosis, ectasia / aneurysm)
  • valves
  • communication (AVF)
  • persistence (of embryonal vessel)
Adapted from International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies[1]

Abbreviations: AVF:arteriovenous fistula.

Vascular Malformations associated With other Anomalies

Vascular malformations associated with other anomalies
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome* CM + VM +/-LM + limb overgrowth
Parkes Weber syndrome CM + AVF + limb overgrowth
Servelle-Martorell syndrome limb VM + bone undergrowth
Sturge-Weber syndrome facial + leptomeningeal CM + eye anomalies

+/-bone and/or soft tissue overgrowth

Limb CM + congenital non-progressive limb overgrowth
Maffucci syndrome VM +/-spindle-cell hemangioma + enchondroma
Macrocephaly-CM (M-CM / MCAP)*
Microcephaly-CM (MICCAP)
CLOVES syndrome* LM + VM + CM +/-AVM+ lipomatous overgrowth
Proteus syndrome CM, VM and/or LM + asymmetrical somatic overgrowth
Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome lower lip CM + face and neck LM + asymmetry and partial/generalized overgrowth
Adapted from International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies[1]

Abbreviations: CM:capillary malformation; VM:venous malformation; LM:lymphatic malformation; AVM:arteriovenous malformation; AVF:arteriovenous fistula; CLOVES:congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal/scoliosis and spinal abnormalities; M-CM:macrocephaly-capillary malformation; MCAP:megalencephaly-capillary malformation-polymicrogyria; MICCAP:microcephaly-capillary malformation.

Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome

For more information on Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, click here

Parkes Weber syndrome

For more information on Parkes Weber syndrome, click here.

Servelle-Martorell syndrome

Sturge-Weber syndrome

For more information on Sturge-Weber syndrome, click here.

Maffucci syndrome

For more information on Maffucci syndrome, click here.

CLOVES syndrome

Proteus syndrome

For more information about Proteus syndrome, click here.

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome

For more information on Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, click here.

CLAPO syndrome

See also

References

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