The Toll genes encode members of the Toll-like receptor class of proteins. ("Toll" is German for "amazing" or "mad".) Toll genes were originally identified in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in 1985,  , and cloned in 1988. Since then, eleven known mammalian Toll genes have been identified.
In flies, Toll was first identified as a gene important in embryogenesis in establishing the dorsal-ventral axis. In 1996, Toll was found to have a role in the fly's immunity to fungal infections. Both mammalian and invertebrate Toll genes are required for innate immunity.
- toll - Wiktionary, das freie Wörterbuch – Das Wikiwörterbuch. Retrieved on 2007-11-10.
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- Hashimoto C, Hudson KL, Anderson KV (1988). "The Toll gene of Drosophila, required for dorsal-ventral embryonic polarity, appears to encode a transmembrane protein". Cell 52 (2): 269–79. PMID 2449285.
- Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA (1997). "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity". Nature 388 (6640): 394–7. doi:10.1038/41131. PMID 9237759.
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