Thymulin

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Thymulin
Thymulin.png
IUPAC name (2''S'')-4-Amino-2-[[(2''S'')-2-[[2-[[2-[[(2''S'')-5-amino-2-[[(2''S'')-2-[[(2''S'')-6-amino-2-[[(2''S'')-2-[[(2''S'')-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-5-oxopentanoyl]amino]acetyl]amino]acetyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 63958-90-7
PubChem 3085284
SMILES CC(C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)N
C(CCC(=O)N)C(=O)NCC(=O)NCC(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)N
C(CC(=O)N)C(=O)O)NC(=O)C1CCC(=O)N1
Properties
Molecular formula C33H54N12O15
Molar mass 858.85 g/mol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Thymulin (also known as Thymic Factor or under its old name Facteur Thymique Serique) is a nonapeptide produced by two distinct epithelial populations in the thymus first described by Bach in 1977.[1] It requires zinc for biological activity.

The hormon is believed to be involved in T-cell differentiation and enhancement of T and NK cell actions.[1] Besides this rather paracrine or auto-organic effects on the thymus dependent immune system, Thymulin seems to have neuroendocrine effects as well. There exist bidirectional interactions between thymic epithelium and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (for example, thymulin follows a circadian rhythm and physiologically elevated ACTH levels correlate positively with thymulin plasma levels and vice versa[2]).

A recent focus has been on the role of thymulin as an effector on proinflammatory mediators/cytokines. A peptide analogue of thymulin (PAT) has been found to have analgesic effects in higher concentrations and particularly neuroprotective anti-inflammatory effects in the CNS.[3] Astrocytes seem to be the target for thymulin for this effect.</br> Researchers hopes to develop drugs thwarting inflammatory processes associated with neurodegenerative diseases and even rheumatism with the help of thymulin analoga.

Moreover, thymulin has been associated with anorexia nervosa.[4]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Bach J, Bardenne M, Pleau J, Rosa J (1977). "Biochemical characterisation of a serum thymic factor". Nature. 266 (5597): 55–7. PMID 300146. 
  2. Hadley AJ, Rantle CM, Buckingham JC (1997). "Thymulin stimulates corticotrophin release and cyclic nucleotide formation in the rat anterior pituitary gland". Neuroimmunomodulation. 4 (2): 62–9. PMID 9483196. 
  3. Dardenne M, Saade N, Safieh-Garabedian B (2006). "Role of thymulin or its analogue as a new analgesic molecule". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1088: 153–63. PMID 17192563. doi:10.1196/annals.1366.006. 
  4. Wade S, Bleiberg F, Mossé A; et al. (1985). "Thymulin (Zn-facteur thymique serique) activity in anorexia nervosa patients". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42 (2): 275–80. PMID 3927699. 

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