|IUPAC name||(2''S'')-4-Amino-2-[[(2''S'')-2-[[2-[[2-[[(2''S'')-5-amino-2-[[(2''S'')-2-[[(2''S'')-6-amino-2-[[(2''S'')-2-[[(2''S'')-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-5-oxopentanoyl]amino]acetyl]amino]acetyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid|
|Molar mass||858.85 g/mol|
| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Thymulin (also known as Thymic Factor or under its old name Facteur Thymique Serique) is a nonapeptide produced by two distinct epithelial populations in the thymus first described by Bach in 1977. It requires zinc for biological activity.
The hormon is believed to be involved in T-cell differentiation and enhancement of T and NK cell actions. Besides this rather paracrine or auto-organic effects on the thymus dependent immune system, Thymulin seems to have neuroendocrine effects as well. There exist bidirectional interactions between thymic epithelium and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (for example, thymulin follows a circadian rhythm and physiologically elevated ACTH levels correlate positively with thymulin plasma levels and vice versa).
A recent focus has been on the role of thymulin as an effector on proinflammatory mediators/cytokines. A peptide analogue of thymulin (PAT) has been found to have analgesic effects in higher concentrations and particularly neuroprotective anti-inflammatory effects in the CNS. Astrocytes seem to be the target for thymulin for this effect.</br> Researchers hopes to develop drugs thwarting inflammatory processes associated with neurodegenerative diseases and even rheumatism with the help of thymulin analoga.
- Bach J, Bardenne M, Pleau J, Rosa J (1977). "Biochemical characterisation of a serum thymic factor". Nature. 266 (5597): 55–7. PMID 300146.
- Hadley AJ, Rantle CM, Buckingham JC (1997). "Thymulin stimulates corticotrophin release and cyclic nucleotide formation in the rat anterior pituitary gland". Neuroimmunomodulation. 4 (2): 62–9. PMID 9483196.
- Dardenne M, Saade N, Safieh-Garabedian B (2006). "Role of thymulin or its analogue as a new analgesic molecule". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1088: 153–63. PMID 17192563. doi:10.1196/annals.1366.006.
- Wade S, Bleiberg F, Mossé A; et al. (1985). "Thymulin (Zn-facteur thymique serique) activity in anorexia nervosa patients". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42 (2): 275–80. PMID 3927699.