The Institute for Genomic Research
The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) is a non-profit genomics research institute founded in 1992 by Craig Venter in Rockville, Maryland, United States. TIGR sequenced the first genome of a free-living organism, the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, in 1995. This landmark project, led by TIGR scientist Robert Fleischmann, led to an explosion of genome sequencing projects, all using the whole-genome sequencing technique pioneered earlier but never used for a whole bacterium until TIGR's project. TIGR scientist Claire Fraser led the projects to sequence the second bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium in 1996, and less than a year later TIGR's Carol Bult led the project to sequence the first genome of an Archaeal species, Methanococcus jannaschii. TIGR went on to become the world's leading center for microbial genome sequencing, and it also participated in the Human Genome Project and many other genome projects. Its Bioinformatics group developed many of the pioneering software algorithms that were used to analyze these genomes, including the automatic gene finder GLIMMER and the genome alignment program MUMmer.
In late 2006, TIGR became a division of the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). In March/April of 2007 the divisions were dissolved and TIGR, along with the Center for the Advancement of Genomics, J. Craig Venter Science Foundation, Joint Technology Center and the Institute for Biological Energy Alternatives (IBEA) were absorbed under the JCVI name.