Transforming growth factor
The name "Transforming Growth Factor" is somewhat arbitrary, since the two classes of TGFs are not structurally or genetically related to one another, and they act through different receptor mechanisms. Furthermore, they do not always induce cellular transformation, and are not the only growth factors that induce cellular transformation.
- TGFα is upregulated in some human cancers. It is produced in macrophages, brain cells, and keratinocytes, and induces epithelial development.
- TGFβ exists in three known subtypes in humans, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and TGFβ3. These are upregulated in some human cancers, and play crucial roles in tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, embryonic development, and regulation of the immune system. Isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) are also thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. TGFβ receptors are single pass serine/threonine kinase receptors.
These proteins were originally characterized by their capacity to induce oncogenic transformation in a specific cell culture system, rat kidney fibroblasts. Application of the transforming growth factors to normal rat kidney fibroblasts induces the cultured cells to proliferate and overgrow, no longer subject to the normal inhibition caused by contact between cells.
- Tumor growth factor (TGF) citations
- "Hoffmann, R., Valencia, A. A gene network for navigating the literature. Nature Genetics 36, 664 (2004)
- MeSH Transforming+Growth+Factors
Animal intercellular signaling peptides and proteins
|Growth factors||Epidermal growth factor - Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) - Nerve growth factor - Platelet-derived growth factor - Transforming growth factor (TGFα, TGFβ, TGFβ pathway)|
|Other||Hedgehog (Sonic hedgehog) - Integrin - JAK/STAT (JAK/STAT) - MAPK/ERK pathway (MAPK/ERK) - NF-κB - Notch (1, 2, 3) - p53 - Wnt (WNT4, Frzb)|