|IUPAC name||Sulfur(II) chloride|
|Other names||sulfur dichloride|
3D model (JSmol)
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|Molar mass||102.97 g mol−1|
|Appearance||red liquid at STP|
|Density||1.621 g cm−3, liquid|
|Refractive index (nD)||1.5570|
|R-phrases||R14; R34; R37; N; R50|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Sulfur dichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SCl2. This cherry-red liquid is the simplest sulfur chloride and one of the most common. It is used as a precursor to organosulfur compounds.
Chlorination of sulfur
SCl2 is produced by the chlorination of either elemental sulfur. The process occurs in a series of steps, some of which are:
- S8 + 4 Cl2 → 4 S2Cl2; ΔH = −58.2 kJ/mol
- S2Cl2 + Cl2 → 2 SCl2; ΔH = −40.6 kJ/mol
The addition of Cl2 to S2Cl2 has been proposed to proceed via a mixed valence intermediate Cl3S-SCl. SCl2 undergoes even further chlorination to give SCl4, but this species is unstable at near room temperature. It is likely that several SxCl2 exist where x > 2.
Use of SCl2 in chemical synthesis
- SCl2 is used in organic synthesis. It adds to alkenes to give chloride-substituted thioethers. Illustrative applications are its addition to 1,5-cyclooctadiene to give a bicyclic thioether and ethylene to give sulfur mustard S(CH2CH2Cl)2.
SCl2 is also a precursor to several inorganic sulfur compounds. Treatment with fluoride salts gives SF4. Reaction with ammonia affords sulfur nitrides related to S4N4. With H2S, SCl2 reacts to give "higher" sulfanes such as S3H2.
SCl2 hydrolyzes with release of HCl. Old samples contain Cl2.
- Schmidt, M.; Siebert, W. "Sulphur" Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry Vol. 2, ed. A.F. Trotman-Dickenson. 1973.
- Bishop, R. "9-Thiabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,6-dione" Organic Syntheses, Collected Volume 9, p.692 (1998). http://www.orgsyn.org/orgsyn/pdfs/CV9P0692.pdf
- R. J. Cremlyn “An Introduction to Organosulfur Chemistry” John Wiley and Sons: Chichester (1996). ISBN 0 471 95512 4.