Starch synthase

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In enzymology, a starch synthase (EC 2.4.1.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n ADP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1

Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ADP-glucose and (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n, whereas its two products are ADP and (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1.

This enzyme belongs to the family of glycosyltransferases, specifically the hexosyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ADP-glucose:1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase, adenosine diphosphate glucose-starch glucosyltransferase, adenosine diphosphoglucose-starch glucosyltransferase, ADP-glucose starch synthase, ADP-glucose synthase, ADP-glucose transglucosylase, ADP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase, ADPG starch synthetase, ADPG-starch glucosyltransferase, and starch synthetase. This enzyme participates in starch and sucrose metabolism.

Structural studies

As of late 2007, 4 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1RZU, 1RZV, 2BFW, and 2BIS.

References

  • IUBMB entry for 2.4.1.21
  • BRENDA references for 2.4.1.21 (Recommended.)
  • PubMed references for 2.4.1.21
  • PubMed Central references for 2.4.1.21
  • Google Scholar references for 2.4.1.21
  • Chambers J, Elbein AD (1970). "Biosynthesis of glucans in mung bean seedlings. Formation of beta-(1,4)-glucans from GDP-glucose and beta-(1,3)-glucans from UDP-glucose". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 138: 620&ndash, 31. PMID 4317490.
  • FRYDMAN RB, CARDINI CE (1965). "STUDIES ON ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE D-GLUCOSE: ALPHA-1,4-GLUCAN ALPHA-4-GLUCOSYLTRANSFERASE OF SWEET-CORN ENDOSPERM". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 96: 294&ndash, 303. PMID 14298833.
  • Greenberg E and Preiss J (1965). "Biosynthesis of bacterial glycogen. II. Purification and properties of the adenosine diphosphoglucose:glycogen transglucosylase of arthrobacter species NRRL B1973". J. Biol. Chem. 240: 2341&ndash, 2348.
  • Leloir LF, de Fekete MA and Cardini CE (1961). "Starch and oligosaccharide synthesis from uridine diphosphate glucose". J. Biol. Chem. 236: 636&ndash, 641.
  • Whelan, W.J. and Schultz, J. (Eds.), Miami Winter Symposia, vol. 1, North Holland, Utrecht, 1970, p. 122-138.

External links

The CAS registry number for this enzyme class is 9030-10-8.

Gene Ontology (GO) codes


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