Sepsis differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Priyamvada Singh, M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

Sepsis must be differentiated from other syndromes such as the acute bacterial endocarditis, myocardial ring abscess, subacute bacterial endocarditis and bacterial meningitis.[1]

Differential Diagnosis

Sepsis must be differentiated from other causes of shock and fever based on clinical and hemodynamic findings.

Classification of shock based on hemodynamic parameters. [2][3]
Type of Shock Etiology CO SVR PCWP CVP SVO2 RVS RVD PAS PAD
Cardiogenic Acute Ventricular Septal Defect ↓↓ N — ↑ ↑↑ ↑ — ↑↑ N — ↑ N — ↑ N — ↑
Acute Mitral Regurgitation ↓↓ ↑↑ ↑ — ↑↑ N — ↑
Myocardial Dysfunction ↓↓ ↑↑ ↑↑ N — ↑ N — ↑ N — ↑
Right Ventricular Infarction ↓↓ N — ↓ ↑↑ ↓ — ↑ ↓ — ↑ ↓ — ↑
Obstructive Pulmonary Embolism ↓↓ N — ↓ ↑↑ ↓ — ↑ ↓ — ↑ ↓ — ↑
Cardiac Tamponade ↓ — ↓↓ ↑↑ ↑↑ N — ↑ N — ↑ N — ↑
Distributive Septic Shock N — ↑↑ ↓ — ↓↓ N — ↓ N — ↓ ↑ — ↑↑ N — ↓ N — ↓
Anaphylactic Shock N — ↑↑ ↓ — ↓↓ N — ↓ N — ↓ ↑ — ↑↑ N — ↓ N — ↓
Hypovolemic Volume Depletion ↓↓ ↓↓ ↓↓ N — ↓ N — ↓

Abbreviations: CO: cardiac output, CVP: central venous pressure, PAD: pulmonary artery diastolic pressure. PAS: pulmonary artery systolic pressure, RVD: right ventricular diastolic pressure.RVS: right ventricular systolic pressure. SVO2: systemic venous oxygen saturation, SVR: systemic vascular resistance.

Other non-infectious causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that must be considered include:

References

  1. Machowicz R, Janka G, Wiktor-Jedrzejczak W (2017). "Similar but not the same: Differential diagnosis of HLH and sepsis". Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 114: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2017.03.023. PMID 28477737.
  2. Parrillo, Joseph E.; Ayres, Stephen M. (1984). Major issues in critical care medicine. Baltimore: William Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-06754-0.
  3. Judith S. Hochman, E. Magnus Ohman (2009). Cardiogenic Shock. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781405179263.

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