Prostatitis causes

Jump to: navigation, search
Urinary Tract Infections Main Page

Prostatitis Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Prostatitis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

X-Ray

CT scan

Echocardiography and Ultrasound

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Prostatitis causes On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Prostatitis causes

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Prostatitis causes

CDC on Prostatitis causes

Prostatitis causes in the news

Blogs on Prostatitis causes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Prostatitis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Prostatitis causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maliha Shakil, M.D. [2] Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S., Usama Talib, BSc, MD [3]

Overview

Prostatitis is usually caused by bacterial infection. Fungi may also rarely be responsible for causing prostatitis. Aerobic gram negative bacilliare the most common cause of bacterial prostatitis, with Escherichia coli accounting for 50-80% of cases.[1] Though a single definitive cause has not been established, different theories exist about chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome pathogenesis including chemical damage owing to reflux or autoimmune process.Many experts consider both inflammatory an non-inflammatory causes of chronic prostatitis to be non-infectious in nature.[2]

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated. There are no known life-threatening causes of prostaitits.

Common Causes

Bacteria are the most common cause of prostatitis over all. Amongst the bacteria the following are more common causes are:[3]

Causes of Acute Bacterial Prostatitis

The causes of acute prostatitis include [4][5][6]

Causes of Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

The causes associated with Chronic bacterial prostatitis include [9][10][11][12][13]

Causes of Chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory Prostatitis

Many experts consider both these categories to be noninfectious. The non infectious causes of Chronic Prostatitis include[15][16][17][18][19]

Some studies associated certain organisms with these types of prostatitis and they include:[20][21][22][23]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular No underlying causes
Chemical/Poisoning Chemical irritation
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Burkholderia pseudomallei, Chlamydia trachomatis, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus neoformans, Enterobacteriaceae , Enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Gonorrhoea, Idiopathic granulomatous prostatitis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mumps , Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus, Ureaplasma urealyticum
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic Urinary tract neuropathy
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Reiter’s syndrome
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Prostate physical trauma
Urologic Pelvic floor weakness, Prostate physical trauma, Urinary tract neuropathy, Urine backup
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References

  1. Lipsky BA, Byren I, Hoey CT (2010). "Treatment of bacterial prostatitis". Clin Infect Dis. 50 (12): 1641–52. doi:10.1086/652861. PMID 20459324.
  2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the Prostate. NIDDK 2016. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/urologic-disease/prostatitis-disorders-of-the-prostate/Pages/facts.aspx#sec3. Accessed on February 25, 2016
  3. Felix Millan-Rodriguez, J. Palou, Anna Bujons-Tur, Mireia Musquera-Felip, Carlota Sevilla-Cecilia, Marc Serrallach-Orejas, Carlos Baez-Angles & Humberto Villavicencio-Mavrich (2006). "Acute bacterial prostatitis: two different sub-categories according to a previous manipulation of the lower urinary tract". World journal of urology. 24 (1): 45–50. doi:10.1007/s00345-005-0040-4. PMID 16437219. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Felix Millan-Rodriguez, J. Palou, Anna Bujons-Tur, Mireia Musquera-Felip, Carlota Sevilla-Cecilia, Marc Serrallach-Orejas, Carlos Baez-Angles & Humberto Villavicencio-Mavrich (2006). "Acute bacterial prostatitis: two different sub-categories according to a previous manipulation of the lower urinary tract". World journal of urology. 24 (1): 45–50. doi:10.1007/s00345-005-0040-4. PMID 16437219. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Manuel Etienne, Pascal Chavanet, Louis Sibert, Frederic Michel, Herve Levesque, Bernard Lorcerie, Jean Doucet, Pierre Pfitzenmeyer & Francois Caron (2008). "Acute bacterial prostatitis: heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria and management. Retrospective multicentric analysis of 371 patients diagnosed with acute prostatitis". BMC infectious diseases. 8: 12. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-8-12. PMID 18234108. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. Manuel Etienne, Martine Pestel-Caron, Claire Chapuzet, Ingrid Bourgeois, Pascal Chavanet & Francois Caron (2010). "Should blood cultures be performed for patients with acute prostatitis?". Journal of clinical microbiology. 48 (5): 1935–1938. doi:10.1128/JCM.00425-10. PMID 20237098. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Felix Millan-Rodriguez, J. Palou, Anna Bujons-Tur, Mireia Musquera-Felip, Carlota Sevilla-Cecilia, Marc Serrallach-Orejas, Carlos Baez-Angles & Humberto Villavicencio-Mavrich (2006). "Acute bacterial prostatitis: two different sub-categories according to a previous manipulation of the lower urinary tract". World journal of urology. 24 (1): 45–50. doi:10.1007/s00345-005-0040-4. PMID 16437219. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. Benjamin A. Lipsky, Ivor Byren & Christopher T. Hoey (2010). "Treatment of bacterial prostatitis". Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 50 (12): 1641–1652. doi:10.1086/652861. PMID 20459324. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. K. G. Naber, W. Busch & J. Focht (2000). "Ciprofloxacin in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis: a prospective, non-comparative multicentre clinical trial with long-term follow-up. The German Prostatitis Study Group". International journal of antimicrobial agents. 14 (2): 143–149. PMID 10720805. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. Benjamin A. Lipsky, Ivor Byren & Christopher T. Hoey (2010). "Treatment of bacterial prostatitis". Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 50 (12): 1641–1652. doi:10.1086/652861. PMID 20459324. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  11. Paul B. Cornia, Traci A. Takahashi & Benjamin A. Lipsky (2006). "The microbiology of bacteriuria in men: a 5-year study at a Veterans' Affairs hospital". Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease. 56 (1): 25–30. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2006.03.008. PMID 16713165. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  12. A. W. Bruce & G. Reid (1989). "Prostatitis associated with Chlamydia trachomatis in 6 patients". The Journal of urology. 142 (4): 1006–1007. PMID 2677408. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  13. Ai-Ying Chuang, Mei-Hua Tsou, Shu-Jen Chang, Lien-Yen Yang, Chiang-Ching Shih, Mung-Pei Tsai, Yu-Lin Chen, Ting-Mei Liu, Chun-Hsing Liao & Po-Ren Hsueh (2012). "Mycobacterium abscessus granulomatous prostatitis". The American journal of surgical pathology. 36 (3): 418–422. doi:10.1097/PAS.0b013e31823dafad. PMID 22261705. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  14. Anthony J. Schaeffer (2006). "Clinical practice. Chronic prostatitis and the chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The New England journal of medicine. 355 (16): 1690–1698. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp060423. PMID 17050893. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  15. Michel A. Pontari & Michael R. Ruggieri (2004). "Mechanisms in prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The Journal of urology. 172 (3): 839–845. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000136002.76898.04. PMID 15310980. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  16. Aare Mehik, Markku J. Leskinen & Pekka Hellstrom (2003). "Mechanisms of pain in chronic pelvic pain syndrome: influence of prostatic inflammation". World journal of urology. 21 (2): 90–94. doi:10.1007/s00345-003-0334-3. PMID 12700922. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  17. A. Mehik, P. Hellstrom, A. Sarpola, O. Lukkarinen & M. R. Jarvelin (2001). "Fears, sexual disturbances and personality features in men with prostatitis: a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland". BJU international. 88 (1): 35–38. PMID 11446842. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  18. P. J. Benson & C. S. Smith (1992). "Cytomegalovirus prostatitis". Urology. 40 (2): 165–167. PMID 1323895. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  19. D. W. Keetch, P. Humphrey & T. L. Ratliff (1994). "Development of a mouse model for nonbacterial prostatitis". The Journal of urology. 152 (1): 247–250. PMID 8201676. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  20. Anthony J. Schaeffer (2003). "Editorial: Emerging concepts in the management of prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The Journal of urology. 169 (2): 597–598. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000046225.33320.a3. PMID 12544315. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  21. J. N. Krieger & K. J. Egan (1991). "Comprehensive evaluation and treatment of 75 men referred to chronic prostatitis clinic". Urology. 38 (1): 11–19. PMID 1866851. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  22. M. Ohkawa, K. Yamaguchi, S. Tokunaga, T. Nakashima & S. Fujita (1993). "Ureaplasma urealyticum in the urogenital tract of patients with chronic prostatitis or related symptomatology". British journal of urology. 72 (6): 918–921. PMID 8306156. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  23. R. E. Berger, J. N. Krieger, D. Kessler, R. C. Ireton, C. Close, K. K. Holmes & P. L. Roberts (1989). "Case-control study of men with suspected chronic idiopathic prostatitis". The Journal of urology. 141 (2): 328–331. PMID 2913355. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  24. P. J. Benson & C. S. Smith (1992). "Cytomegalovirus prostatitis". Urology. 40 (2): 165–167. PMID 1323895. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  25. T. C. McKay, D. M. Albala, K. Sendelbach & P. Gattuso (1994). "Cytomegalovirus prostatitis. Case report and review of the literature". International urology and nephrology. 26 (5): 535–540. PMID 7860201.
  26. A. Doble, J. R. Harris & D. Taylor-Robinson (1991). "Prostatodynia and herpes simplex virus infection". Urology. 38 (3): 247–248. PMID 1653479. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  27. Wein, Alan (2016). Campbell-Walsh urology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN 978-1455775675.
  28. Peter A. Humphrey (2014). "Fungal prostatitis caused by coccidioides". The Journal of urology. 191 (1): 215–216. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2013.10.045. PMID 24135439. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  29. A. Cherasse, M. Herin, M. Oana & C. Marievoet (1997). "[Aspergillus prostatitis and prolonged corticotherapy. Apropos of a case report]". Acta urologica Belgica. 65 (1): 43–48. PMID 9245202. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  30. O. K. Ndimbie, A. Dekker, A. J. Martinez & B. Dixon (1994). "Prostatic sequestration of Cryptococcus neoformans in immunocompromised persons treated for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis". Histology and histopathology. 9 (4): 643–648. PMID 7894136. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  31. H. Fuse, M. Ohkawa, K. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata & F. Matsubara (1995). "Cryptococcal prostatitis in a patient with Behcet's disease treated with fluconazole". Mycopathologia. 130 (3): 147–150. PMID 7566068. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  32. Smith, J.H. Parasitic diseases of the genito-urinary system. Harvard Medical School: W. B. SAUNDERS COMPANY. p. 733–778. ISBN 0-7216-3097-9.
  33. Wein, Alan (2016). Campbell-Walsh urology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN 978-1455775675.

Linked-in.jpg