Pre-Botzinger complex

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The Pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC) is a cluster of interneurons in the ventrolateral medulla essential to the generation of respiratory rhythm in mammals. The exact mechanism of the rhythm generation and transmission to motor nucluei remains controversial and the topic of much present research.

Several synthetic compounds have been shown to act on neurons specfic to the preBötC, most being selective agonists or antagonists to receptor subtypes on neurons in the vicinity. Since many of these neurons express GABA, NMDA-glutamate, and adenosine receptors, chemicals custom tailored to bind at these sites are most effective at altering respiratory rhythm.

One such novel compound that acts on this area of the brain stem, called BIMU8, has been discovered . BIMU8, a selective 5HT4 serotonin agonist is thought to stimulate the pBc, causing an increase in the rate of respiration. Another synthetic drug specific to the adenosine A2A receptor subtype is CGS21680 that has been shown to cause apneas in 14-21 day old rat pups in vivo. For this reason, it has been used as a model to study pathological conditions such as apnea of prematurity and SIDS in neonatal infants.

See also

External links

  • Smith JC, Ellenberger HH, Ballanyi K, Richter DW, Feldman JL (1991). "Pre-Bötzinger complex: a brainstem region that may generate respiratory rhythm in mammals". Science. 254 (5032): 726–9. PMID 1683005.
  • Kuwana S, Tsunekawa N, Yanagawa Y, Okada Y, Kuribayashi J, Obata K (2006). "Electrophysiological and morphological characteristics of GABAergic respiratory neurons in the mouse pre-Botzinger complex". Eur J Neurosci. 23 (3): 667–674. PMID 16487148.
  • Mayer CA, Haxhiu MA, Martin RJ, Wilson CG (2006). "Adenosine A2A receptors mediate GABAergic inhibition of respiration in immature rats". J Appl Physiol. 100 (1): 91–97. PMID 16141383.

Cost Effectiveness of Pre-Botzinger complex

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Pre-Botzinger complex | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Pre-Botzinger complex at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Pre-Botzinger complexClinical Trials on Pre-Botzinger complex at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Pre-Botzinger complex | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Pre-Botzinger complexNICE Guidance on Pre-Botzinger complexNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Pre-Botzinger complexCDC on Pre-Botzinger complex


| group7 = Textbook Information on Pre-Botzinger complex | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Pre-Botzinger complex


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Pre-Botzinger complex | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Pre-Botzinger complexAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Pre-Botzinger complexAND (side effects)}} Side effects of Pre-Botzinger complexAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Pre-Botzinger complexAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Pre-Botzinger complexAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Pre-Botzinger complexAND (pregnancy)}} Pre-Botzinger complex in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Pre-Botzinger complex


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Pre-Botzinger complex | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Pre-Botzinger complexAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Pre-Botzinger complexAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Pre-Botzinger complex


| group10 = Newstories on Pre-Botzinger complex | list10 = Pre-Botzinger complex in the newsBe alerted to news on Pre-Botzinger complexNews trends on Pre-Botzinger complex


| group11 = Commentary on Pre-Botzinger complex | list11 = Blogs on Pre-Botzinger complex

| group12 = Patient Resources on Pre-Botzinger complex | list12 = Patient resources on Pre-Botzinger complexDiscussion groups on Pre-Botzinger complexPatient Handouts on Pre-Botzinger complexDirections to Hospitals Treating Pre-Botzinger complexRisk calculators and risk factors for Pre-Botzinger complex


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Pre-Botzinger complex | list13 = Symptoms of Pre-Botzinger complexCauses & Risk Factors for Pre-Botzinger complexDiagnostic studies for Pre-Botzinger complexTreatment of Pre-Botzinger complex

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Pre-Botzinger complex | list14 = CME Programs on Pre-Botzinger complex

| group15 = International Resources on Pre-Botzinger complex | list15 = Pre-Botzinger complex en EspanolPre-Botzinger complex en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Pre-Botzinger complex | list16 = Pre-Botzinger complex in the MarketplacePatents on Pre-Botzinger complex

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Pre-Botzinger complex | list17 = List of terms related to Pre-Botzinger complex


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