Poison control center

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Overview

A poison control center (PCC) or poison information center (PIC) is a medical facility that is able to provide immediate, free, and expert treatment advice and assistance over the telephone in case of exposure to poisonous, or hazardous substances. Poison Control Centers answer questions about potential poisons in addition to providing treatment management advice about personal care products, household products, medicines, pesticides, plants, bites and stings, food poisoning, alcohol, gases, and fumes. More than 75%[1] of poison exposure cases are managed simply by phone, greatly reducing the need for costly emergency room and doctor visits.[2] In most countries around the world poison control centers can be reached toll-free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year.

History

After World War II there was a proliferation of new drugs and chemicals in the marketplace, similarly suicide and childhood poisonings from these agents drastically increased (around this time up to half of all accidents in children were poisonings with a substantial number of fatalities).[3] These factors led to the medical community developing a response to both unintentional and intentional poisonings. In Europe in the late 1940s special toxicology wards were set up, initial wards were started in Copenhagen and Budapest, and the Netherlands began a poison information service.[4] In the USA the first poison information center was started in Chicago in 1953.[5] By 1957 there were 17 poison control centers in the US, with the Chicago center serving as a model; these centers dealt mainly with physician enquiries by giving ingredient and toxicity information about products, along with treatment recommendations. Over time the poison control centers started taking calls form the general public. The majority of poison centers were not part of a patient treatment facility; they strictly provided information.

In 1958 the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) was founded to promote cooperation between the different cities poison centers and to standardize the operation of these centers. An additional part of the AAPCC activities was poison prevention and education programs for both physicians and the general public. In 1968 the American Academy of Clinical Toxicologists (AACT) was established by a group of medical doctors. The AACT’s main objective was to apply principles of toxicology to patient treatment and improve the standard of care on a national basis. In the 1960s and 1970s a rapid proliferation of poison centers emerged and by 1978 there were 661 centers in the USA. This trend reversed during the 1980s and 1990s with a number of centers closing or merging. In 2000 there was 51 certified centers in the USA.[6]

A similar movement evolved in Europe but unlike the American movement the majority were centralized toxicology treatment centers with integrated poison information centers. The French developed an inpatient unit for the treatment of poisoned patients in the late 1950s. In England the National Poison Information Service was developed at Guy's Hospital under Dr Roy Goulding.[4] At around the same time Dr Henry Mathew started a poison treatment center in Edinburgh.[7] In 1964 the European Association for Poison Control Centers was formed at Tours, France.[4] Australasian centers were also estabilshed in the 1960s.

Today

USA

The American Association of Poison Control Centers manages the 24-hour hotline, which is continuously staffed by pharmacists, physicians, nurses, and poison information specialists who have received dedicated training in the field of toxicology. It has a TTY/TDD number for the hearing impaired. Poison educators across the country also offer poison prevention training and education sessions to community institutions, along with educational materials. The national phone number is 1-800-222-1222, which routes calls to a local facility.

Rest of the world

Most countries have a poison control center with staffing similar to the American centers. A worldwide directory of poison centers is available from the World Health Organization's website

Local Poison Control Centers

Animal Poison Control Center

Alabama Poison Center

Alaska Poison Control System

Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center

Banner Health Poison Center

Blue Ridge Poison Center

California Poison Control System

Carolinas Poison Center

Central New York Poison Center

Central Ohio Poison Center

Central Texas Poison Center

Children's Hospital of Michigan Poison Control Center

Children's Hospital of Wisconsin Poison Control Center

Cincinnati Drug and Poison Information Center

Connecticut Poison Control Center

DeVos Children's Hospital Regional Poison Center

Finger Lakes Regional Poison Center

Florida Poison Information Center - Jacksonville

Florida Poison Information Center - Miami

Florida Poison Information Center - Tampa

Georgia Poison Center

Hennepin Regional Poison Center

Hudson Valley Poison Education Center

Illinois Poison Center

Indiana Poison Center

Iowa Statewide Poison Control Center

Kentucky Regional Poison Center

Louisiana Drug and Poison Information Center

Long Island Regional Poison and Drug Information Center

Maryland Poison Center

National Capital Poison Center

National Poisons Centre

Nebraska Regional Poison Center

New Jersey Poison Information and Education System

New Mexico Poison Drug Information Center

North Texas Poison Center

Oklahoma Poison Control Center

Ontario Regional Poison Control Center

Oregon Poison Center

Palmetto Poison Center

Pittsburgh Poison Center

Regional Center for Poison Control and Prevention Serving Massachusetts and Rhode Island

San Jorge Children's Hospital Poison Center

Tennessee Poison Center

Nebraska Poison Control Center

The Poison Control Center - Philadelphia

PROSAR International Poison Control Center

Regional Poison Control Center - Birmingham

Rocky Mountain Poison Drug Center

South Texas Poison Center

Southeast Texas Poison Center

Texas Poison Center Network

Texas Department of Health

Texas Panhandle Poison Center

University of Wisconsin Hospital Clinics Poison Control Center

Virginia Poison Center

Washington Poison Center

West Texas Regional Poison Center

West Virginia Poison Center

Western New York Poison Center

References

  1. Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS, ed. (2002). Goldfrank’s toxicologic emergencies. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-136001-8.
  2. Miller T, Lestina D (1997). "Costs of poisoning in the United States and savings from poison control centers: a benefit-cost analysis". Ann Emerg Med. 29 (2): 239–45. PMID 9018189.
  3. Grayson R (1962). "The poison control movement in the United States". Ind Med Surg. 31: 296–7. PMID 13901334.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Govaerts M (1970). "Poison control in Europe". Pediatr Clin North Am. 17 (3): 729–39. PMID 5491436.
  5. Press E, Mellins R (1954). "A poisoning control program". Am J Public Health. 44 (12): 1515–25. PMID 13207477.
  6. Ford MD, Delaney KA, Ling LJ, Erickson T., ed. (2001). Clinical toxicology. WB Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-5485-1.
  7. Proudfoot A (1988). "Clinical toxicology—past, present and future". Hum Toxicol. 7 (5): 481–7. PMID 3056845.

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