- Penicillium bilaiae, which is an agricultural inoculant.
- Penicillium camemberti, which is used in the production of Camembert and Brie cheeses.
- Penicillium candida, which is used in making Brie and Camembert.
- Penicillium glaucum, which is used in making Gorgonzola cheese.
- Penicillium marneffei, a thermally dimorphic species endemic in Southeast Asia, which presents a threat of systemic infection to AIDS patients.
- Penicillium chrysogenum (previously known as Penicillium notatum), which produces the antibiotic penicillin.
- Penicillium purpurogenum
- Penicillium roqueforti, which is used in making Roquefort, Danish Blue cheese and also recently Gorgonzola.
- Penicillium stoloniferum
- Penicillium viridicatum produces ochratoxin
- Penicillium verrucosum produces ochratoxin A
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