Palmitoleic acid

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Template:Chembox E number
Palmitoleic acid
IUPAC name hexadec-9-enoic acid
Other names Palmitoleic acid
cis-Palmitoleic acid
9-cis-Hexadecenoic acid
3D model (JSmol)
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Molar mass 254.408
Density 0.894 g/cm³
Melting point
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Palmitoleic acid, or (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, is a omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid that is a common constituent of the glycerides of human adipose tissue. It is present in all tissues, but generally found in higher concentrations in the liver. It is biosynthesized from palmitic acid by the action of the enzyme delta-9 desaturase.

Dietary sources of palmitoleic acid include a variety of animal oils, vegetable oils, and marine oils. Macadamia oil (Macadamia integrifolia) and Sea Buckthorn oil (Hippophae rhamnoides) are botanical sources with high concentrations, containing 22[citation needed] and 40%[1] of palmitoleic acid, respectively.

In a recent study examining the effects of diets high in various fatty acids, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad cholesterol") concentrations were similar with palmitoleic and palmitic acids and significantly higher than with oleic acid.[2] High density lipoprotein (HDL, "good cholesterol") was significantly lower with palmitoleic than with palmitic acid. The study confirms that, at least in hypercholesterolemic men, a modest increase in palmitic acid raises LDL cholesterol relative to oleic acid, even when dietary cholesterol is low. Palmitoleic acid behaves like a saturated and not a monounsaturated fatty acid in its effect on LDL cholesterol.


  1. Li, Thomas S. C. (2003). Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) : Production and Utilization. Ottawa, Ontario: NRC Research Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 0-660-19007-9. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  2. Nestel P, Clifton P, Noakes M. (1994). "Effects of increasing dietary palmitoleic acid compared with palmitic and oleic acids on plasma lipids of hypercholesterolemic men". Journal of Lipid Research. 35 (4): 656–662. PMID 8006520.