Palatal consonant

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Template:Place of articulation Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex.

The most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant [j], which ranks as overall, among the ten most common sounds in the world's languages. The nasal ɲ is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages[1], in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the plosive c, but the affricate . Only a few languages in northern Eurasia, the Americas and central Africa contrast palatal plosives with postalveolar affricates - the only common ones being Hungarian, Czech, Slovak and Albanian.

Warning: the IPA symbols <c, ɟ> are commonly used, not for palatal stops, but for the palatalized velar stops [kʲ, ɡʲ], or the palatal affricates [c͡ç, ɟ͡ʝ], or the alveolopalatal affricates [t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ], or even the postalveolar affricates [t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ]. This is an old IPA tradition. True palatal stops are relatively uncommon, so it is a good idea to verify the pronunciation whenever you see <c, ɟ> in the transcription of a language.

Consonants with other primary articulations may be palatalised, that is, accompanied by the raising of the tongue surface towards the hard palate. For example, English [ʃ] (spelled sh) has such a palatal component, although its primary articulation involves the tip of the tongue and the upper gum (this type of articulation is called palatoalveolar). The palatal consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are:

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
File:Xsampa-J.png palatal nasal French agneau [aɲo] lamb
File:Xsampa-c.png voiceless palatal plosive Hungarian hattyú [] swan
File:Xsampa-Jslash.png voiced palatal plosive Margi ɟaɗí [ɟaɗí] hump of a cow
File:Xsampa-C2.png voiceless palatal fricative German nicht [çt] not
File:Xsampa-jslash2.png voiced palatal fricative Spanish yema [ʝema] egg yolk
File:Xsampa-j2.png palatal approximant English yes [jɛs] yes
File:Xsampa-L2.png palatal lateral approximant Italian gli [ʎi] the (masculine plural)
File:Xsampa-Jslash lessthan.png voiced palatal implosive Swahili hujambo [huʄambo] hello


  1. Ian Maddieson (with a chapter contributed by Sandra Ferrari Disner); Patterns of sounds; Cambridge University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-521-26536-3

See also


ar:غاري bn:তালব্য ব্যঞ্জনধ্বনি br:Kensonenn staon cs:Palatální souhláska de:Palatal eo:Palatalo ko:경구개음 it:Consonante palatale he:עיצורים חכיים lv:Palatāls līdzskanis no:Palataler sv:Palatal konsonant ta:அண்ண மெய்