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Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIN1 gene.[1][2]

Pin 1, or peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase), isomerizes only phospho-Serine/Threonine-Proline motifs. The enzyme binds to a subset of proteins and thus plays a role as a post phosphorylation control in regulating protein function. Studies have shown that the deregulation of Pin1 may play a pivotal role in various diseases. Notably, the up-regulation of Pin1 is implicated in certain cancers, and the down-regulation of Pin1 is implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Inhibitors of Pin1 may have therapeutic implications for cancer and immune disorders.


The gene encoding Pin1 was identified in 1996 as a result of a genetic/biochemical screen for proteins involved in mitotic regulation. It was found to be essential for cell division in some organisms. By 1999, however, it was apparent that Pin1 knockout mice had a surprisingly mild phenotype, indicating that the enzyme was not required for cell division per se. Further studies later found that loss of Pin1 in mice displays are not only neuronal degenerative phenotypes but also several abnormalities, similar to those of cyclin D1-null mice, suggesting the conformation changes mediated by Pin1 may be crucial for cell normal function.


Phosphorylation of Ser/Thr-Pro motifs in substrates is required for recognition by Pin1. Pin is a small protein at 18 kDa and does not have a nuclear localization or export signal. However, 2009, Lufei et al. reported that Pin1 has putative novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) and Pin1 interacts with importin α5 (KPNA1).[3] Substrate interactions and a WW domain determine subcellular distribution. Expression is induced by growth signals from E2F transcription factors. Expression levels fluctuate in normal, but not in cancerous cells. Expression is often associated with cell proliferation. Postranslational modifications such as phosphorylation on Ser16 inhibit the ability of Pin1 to bind substrate, and this inhibitory process may be altered during oncogenesis. It is hypothesized, but not proven, that Pin1 might also be regulated by proteolytic pathways.


Pin1 activity regulates the outcome of proline-directed kinase (e.g. MAPK, CDK or GSK3) signalling and consequently regulates cell proliferation (in part through control of cyclin D1 levels and stability) and cell survival. The precise effects of Pin1 depend upon the system: Pin1 accelerates dephosphorylation of Cdc25 and Tau, but protects phosphorylated cyclin D from ubiquitination and proteolysis. Recent data also implicate Pin1 as playing an important role in immune responses, at least in part by increasing the stability of cytokine mRNAs by influencing the protein complexes to which they bind. Pin1 has been hypothesized to act as a molecular timer.[4]


PIN1 has been shown to interact with:


  1. Lu KP, Hanes SD, Hunter T (Apr 1996). "A human peptidyl-prolyl isomerase essential for regulation of mitosis". Nature. 380 (6574): 544–7. doi:10.1038/380544a0. PMID 8606777.
  2. "Entrez Gene: PIN1 Protein (peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase) NIMA-interacting 1".
  3. Lufei C, Cao X (2009). "Nuclear import of Pin1 is mediated by a novel sequence in the PPIase domain". FEBS Letters. 583: 271–276. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2008.12.011. PMID 19084525.
  4. Lu KP, Finn G, Lee TH, Nicholson LK (Oct 2007). "Prolyl cis-trans isomerization as a molecular timer". Nature Chemical Biology. 3 (10): 619–29. doi:10.1038/nchembio.2007.35. PMID 17876319.
  5. Wulf GM, Ryo A, Wulf GG, Lee SW, Niu T, Petkova V, Lu KP (Jul 2001). "Pin1 is overexpressed in breast cancer and cooperates with Ras signaling in increasing the transcriptional activity of c-Jun towards cyclin D1". The EMBO Journal. 20 (13): 3459–72. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.13.3459. PMC 125530. PMID 11432833.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Shen M, Stukenberg PT, Kirschner MW, Lu KP (Mar 1998). "The essential mitotic peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 binds and regulates mitosis-specific phosphoproteins". Genes & Development. 12 (5): 706–20. doi:10.1101/gad.12.5.706. PMC 316589. PMID 9499405.
  7. Goldstrohm AC, Albrecht TR, Suñé C, Bedford MT, Garcia-Blanco MA (Nov 2001). "The transcription elongation factor CA150 interacts with RNA polymerase II and the pre-mRNA splicing factor SF1". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (22): 7617–28. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.22.7617-7628.2001. PMC 99933. PMID 11604498.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Lu PJ, Zhou XZ, Shen M, Lu KP (Feb 1999). "Function of WW domains as phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding modules". Science. 283 (5406): 1325–8. doi:10.1126/science.283.5406.1325. PMID 10037602.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Messenger MM, Saulnier RB, Gilchrist AD, Diamond P, Gorbsky GJ, Litchfield DW (Jun 2002). "Interactions between protein kinase CK2 and Pin1. Evidence for phosphorylation-dependent interactions". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (25): 23054–64. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200111200. PMID 11940573.
  10. He J, Xu J, Xu XX, Hall RA (Jul 2003). "Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of Disabled-2 by cdc2". Oncogene. 22 (29): 4524–30. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206767. PMID 12881709.
  11. Ruan L, Torres CM, Qian J, Chen F, Mintz JD, Stepp DW, Fulton D, Venema RC (Feb 2011). "Pin1 prolyl isomerase regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 31 (2): 392–8. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.213181. PMC 3075952. PMID 21051667.
  12. Brenkman AB, de Keizer PL, van den Broek NJ, van der Groep P, van Diest PJ, van der Horst A, Smits AM, Burgering BM (Sep 2008). "The peptidyl-isomerase Pin1 regulates p27kip1 expression through inhibition of Forkhead box O tumor suppressors". Cancer Research. 68 (18): 7597–605. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1059. PMID 18794148.
  13. Kamimoto T, Zama T, Aoki R, Muro Y, Hagiwara M (Oct 2001). "Identification of a novel kinesin-related protein, KRMP1, as a target for mitotic peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (40): 37520–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106207200. PMID 11470801.
  14. Wells NJ, Watanabe N, Tokusumi T, Jiang W, Verdecia MA, Hunter T (Oct 1999). "The C-terminal domain of the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase Myt1 interacts with Cdc2 complexes and is required for inhibition of G(2)/M progression". Journal of Cell Science. 112 (19): 3361–71. PMID 10504341.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Nakano A, Koinuma D, Miyazawa K, Uchida T, Saitoh M, Kawabata M, Hanai J, Akiyama H, Abe M, Miyazono K, Matsumoto T, Imamura T (Mar 2009). "Pin1 down-regulates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling by inducing degradation of Smad proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (10): 6109–15. doi:10.1074/jbc.M804659200. PMID 19122240.
  16. Wulf GM, Liou YC, Ryo A, Lee SW, Lu KP (Dec 2002). "Role of Pin1 in the regulation of p53 stability and p21 transactivation, and cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (50): 47976–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200538200. PMID 12388558.
  17. Zacchi P, Gostissa M, Uchida T, Salvagno C, Avolio F, Volinia S, Ronai Z, Blandino G, Schneider C, Del Sal G (Oct 2002). "The prolyl isomerase Pin1 reveals a mechanism to control p53 functions after genotoxic insults". Nature. 419 (6909): 853–7. doi:10.1038/nature01120. PMID 12397362.
  18. Lavoie SB, Albert AL, Handa H, Vincent M, Bensaude O (Sep 2001). "The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 interacts with hSpt5 phosphorylated by Cdk9". Journal of Molecular Biology. 312 (4): 675–85. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.4991. PMID 11575923.

Further reading